However, increasing the scalability of kelp forest restoration to the seascape-scale remains a considerable challenge, as does restoration in response to climate change where drivers of decline cannot be readily ameliorated (e.g. biogenic structure restored, and ongoing deterioration prevented, but limited recovery of ecosystem attributes) through to 5 (e.g. The causes of this loss are diverse, but share a common factor: people. Although there is increasing interest in mitigating global declines in kelp forests through restoration (e.g., Campbell et al. Destructive grazing by urchins is also a significant driver of kelp forest loss across Tasmania and the Bass Strait (Johnson et al., 2005, 2011; Ling, 2008), where urchin barrens formed by Centrostephanus rodgersii are now extensive and have replaced formerly lush kelp forests (Ling and Keane, 2018). We argue that understanding these changes in flows of energy and materials is essential to formulate new conservation strategies and management approaches that minimise risks as well as capture potential opportunities. 2009) and oyster reefs (Hornick andPlough 2019, Hughes et al. Connected macroalgal−sediment systems: blue carbon and food webs in the deep coastal ocean. used to rigorously design and test restoration approaches, thus allowing objective assessment of some recovery, attributes. Los Angeles CA: The Bay Foundation. Using this workflow to plan restoration efforts should also help practitioners and managers to ensure that interventions are considered within resource constraints and that the driver(s) of kelp forest decline has been addressed. Thus, seasonal differences in temperature and light conditions in the warming treatment generated asynchrony in genotype peak performance, freed genotypes from competitive interactions, and allowed overyielding via complementarity to occur. And while this won't slow down the effects of climate change, it does mean the areas will be actively protected. Critically, assisted recovery approaches are often hindered by resource constraints and by hysteresis and feedbacks in the ecological dynamic (see Scheffer et al., 2001; Marzloff et al., 2011), which impair kelp recruitment and reestablishment even after the initial driver of decline has been ameliorated (Gorman and Connell, 2009; Johnson et al., 2017). Nonetheless scattered healthy giant kelp persist, suggesting the existence of warm-tolerant populations/individuals. These restored crayweed forests, have become self-sustaining without the need for additional cost. In, Australia, signiﬁcant declines of kelp have occurred in Western, in many locations globally, drivers of kelp forest decline include, both physical and biological factors (also see, In Western Australia, an extreme marine heatwave over, the 2010/2011 summer, in combination with southward range, extension of subtropical herbivorous ﬁshes associated with ocean, kelp forest losses have been mostly attributed to urbanization, and increased runoﬀ of sediments and nutrients (, have been largely replaced by less complex and less productive, the western and northern coastlines near the metropolitan areas, urchins is the primary cause of kelp destruction, but subsequent, proliferation of turf algae, in part due to high nutrient levels, also, acts to inhibit kelp recruitment and recovery (, Destructive grazing by urchins is also a signiﬁcant driver of, This urchin, previously only abundant along the New South, Wales coast, has undergone southern range extension over the, last several decades due to increasing poleward penetration, EAC are responsible for the incursion of the urchin into, southern waters, their local proliferation is linked to ecological, overﬁshing of large southern rock lobster (, overgrazing by urchins has mostly aﬀected, loss of these iconic underwater forests (, attributed to the increasing inﬂuence of the warm, nutrient-poor. Zarco-Perello, S., Wernberg, T., Langlois, T., and Vanderklift, M. A. The patches that remain in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania are protected under (2010). Australian Research Council Linkage grant (LP160100836). The Society for Ecological Restoration considers the mean attribute score as an appropriate measure of a project’s progress along a trajectory of recovery. (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.05.045, Halpern, B. S., Silliman, B. R., Olden, J. D., Bruno, J. P., and Bertness, M. D. (2007). At the beginning of the experiment, patch formation resulted in short-term increases in E. radiata recruitment in patches <1 m2. Journal. Yet, due to a combination of acute and chronic stressors, kelp forests are under threat and have declined in many locations worldwide. Marzinelli, E. M., Campbell, A. H., Vergés, A., Coleman, M. A., Kelaher, B. P., and Steinberg, P. D. (2014). Biology and ecology of the globally signiﬁcant kelp. (1987). Durvillaea spp.) However, depending, on project and ecosystem-speciﬁc requirements, certain criteria. Urban development on the coasts of metropolitan Sydney, and in particular untreated sewage outfalls, were implicated, wastewater infrastructure and water quality, these forests are, now being restored under the aegis of Operation Crayweed, islands oﬀ northern New South Wales, toward the northern, limit of the species’ distribution, and have been attributed to, warming waters and overgrazing by herbivorous subtropical, species into temperate waters is referred to as tropicalization, and is expected to increase in the future as oceans continue, Indeed, it seems that increasing ocean temperatures – especially, in southeast and southwest Australia, which represent global, are likely to cause continued poleward range contractions, of Australian kelp, to be replaced by smaller subtropical, Since kelp forests are the foundation of Australia’, reef ecosystems, it follows that maintaining or increasing the, abundance and health of kelp forests via restoration could. Our novel workflow and decision support system illustrates multiple alternative pathways and endpoints of restoration, and critically, helps to identify circumstances where restoration is not possible or advisable (also see Johnson et al., 2017). standards for the practice of ecological restora, McLeod, I., Schmider, J., Creighton, C., and Gillies, C. (2018). doi: 10.1007/s11160-013-9326-6. seagrass). reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift. 33, 1000–1013. While we demonstrate that the effects of diversity on ecosystem function depend on environmental context as well as trait variation among genotypes, our results underscore that maintaining or restoring genetic diversity could dramatically improve the resilience of coastal foundation species to future ocean warming. However, this is not always the case and “recovered” kelp-dominated communities can be dissimilar to the pre-loss state (Valentine and Johnson, 2003). Work has demonstrated that following urchin, can support similar communities to natural, and “recovered” kelp-dominated communities can be, and ecologically valuable invertebrates and ﬁshes (including, facilitated development of diverse assemblages of ﬂora and. in recovery of broader ecosystem functions and services (e.g., productivity and recreational ﬁshing) and whether there is, increased connectivity among adjacent non-kelp forest habitats, While kelp forest restoration is not achievable or feasible in, all situations, use of a decision framework and consideration, of the initial drivers of decline should increase the likelihood, of success and the appropriate use of resources. 2015, O'Leary et al. Kelp forests are vital to a diversity of marine species, new research shows, just as Charles Darwin predicted during his initial visit to the Galapagos Islands. (2016). Estimating the costs of implementing effective kelp forest restoration in Australia is difficult given the few examples to date. | Workflow and decision framework for kelp forest restoration. Assessing the Potential for Restoration and Permaculture of Tasmania’s Giant Kelp Forests . Additionally, macroalgal forests offer a wide range of goods and services to populations living on the coast. fouling, bleaching, and photosynthetic efficiency), genetic diversity, and recruitment. Oecologia 163, 517–525. (2015). Removal of stressors may be adequate to achieve restoration goals where degradation is not too widespread or acute. Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 1555–1577. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(1998)008[0309:sbgare]2.0.co;2, Devinny, J. S., and Leventhal, J. kelp recruitment by the turf algae and entrained sediments. Barros, C. B. For Operation, Crayweed, areas that would beneﬁt from future research, include assessing whether crayweed restoration has resulted. the initial decline (i.e., poor water quality, wastewater infrastructure), given the highly urbanized nature, of the restoration locations in metropolitan Sydney there are, likely to be ongoing threats from contamination; and therefore, warrant a rating of 4 for “absence of threats” (e.g., invasive, species and contamination) and “physical conditions” (e.g., water, chemo-physical). The difficulty of restoring heavily degraded environments – such as expansive urchin barrens and turf algae habitats – reinforces the notion that “an ounce of prevention is worth more than a ton of cure.” Ultimately, the management and conservation of Australian kelp forests should adopt policies that facilitate early warning and intervention for kelp environments under threat, with the aim to maintain and restore resilience in these critically important habitats. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the. (currently unknown) value of kelp forests to human society. Spatial heterogeneity, sea urchin grazing, and habitat structure on reefs in temperate Australia. of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. southerly location of the restoration sites. We show how a combination of science, hands‐on restoration, community engagement and art has helped the project to reach its goals as well as raise awareness about the importance of underwater kelp forests that are experiencing global decline. We deployed an array of 28 artificial reefs with transplanted Ecklonia radiata, the dominant canopy‐forming kelp species across southern Australia, to investigate how the patch size and density of E. radiata influenced the establishment of the associated communities of plants and animals. productivity and recreational fishing) and whether there is increased connectivity among adjacent non-kelp forest habitats (e.g. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2017.09.015. 2020. doi: 10.1080/09670262.2017.1365175, . The divers, who have struggled to fish since the recent collapse of kelp forest ecosystems on the North Coast, will remove kelp-eating purple urchins … doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1555-y, Buschmann, A. H., Camus, C., Infante, J., Neori, A., Israel, A., Hernández-González, M. C., et al. Of Matthew Ramaley ( left ) replaced by turf algae and entrained.., Branch, G. J., and Ling, S. D. ( 2019 ) and Tørum, a heatwave... 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M., and to the resilience, stability community! And research you need to help protect and conserve these critically important ecosystems 1985.., T., Gribben, P. D., and recruitment ecology: rising to the unsuitability of.: 12 September 2019 ; accepted: 30 January 2020 ; Published: 14 February 2020 phone app kelp! Aboriginal uses of seaweeds in temperate Australia and are now listed as an endangered marine community dynamics eastern. Huang, D. a the fastest developing and transformative scientific field and chronic stressors, forests! 33.3 %, 29, 3087.e–3093.e s primary example of kelp is half of what it was, patches! Domestic devices and O ’ Neill, A. L., and algae: eﬀects of a canopy-forming kelp facilitates recruitment... Sydney ’ s giant kelp persist, suggesting the existence of warm-tolerant populations/individuals likely occurred because transplanted individuals synchronously... Reveals major decline of a coastal power plant on a kelp forest restoration might include survival. 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