(B) Diagrams of meristem identity of the pim, det, and veg1 mutants. (1999). doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001883, Varshney, R. K., Song, C., Saxena, R. K., Azam, S., Yu, S., Sharpe, A. G., et al. J. (2010). Genome sequencing reveals agronomically important loci in rice using MutMap. Information about the open-access article 'Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes' in DOAJ. doi: 10.1006/scdb.1996.0057, Repinski, S. L., Kwak, M., and Gepts, P. (2012). In agreement with this, DET expression, which as discussed above specifies I1 meristem identity, was found in the lateral meristems produced at the flanks of the apical I1 meristem of the veg1 plants, indicating that in wild-type (WT) pea, VEG1 is required to confer I2 identity to these lateral meristems and that to achieve that, VEG1 directly or indirectly represses DET expression in these meristems (Berbel et al., 2012). 2014 Nov 24;5:669. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00669. Therefore, the tfl1 mutation changes the Arabidopsis inflorescence from an indeterminate to a determinate type. (1999). (D) Model for specification of meristem identity in the simple inflorescence of Arabidopsis. Efficient discovery of DNA polymorphisms in natural populations by Ecotilling. 14, R61. c) anthodium. Targeted genome modification of crop plants using a CRISPR-Cas system. In addition, different reverse genetic and genomic tools that can be used to validate the function of candidate genes for architectural traits are now available in several model and non-model legume species. User guide for mapping-by-sequencing in Arabidopsis. Open circles represent flowers and arrows represent indeterminate shoots. Plant Sci. 108, 133–142. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00257-0, Hofer, J., Turner, L., Moreau, C., Ambrose, M., Isaac, P., Butcher, S., et al. Upon floral transition, the SAM becomes an inflorescence meristem that, either directly or in flower-bearing shoots, produces the floral meristems that form the flowers. doi: 10.1038/nature08670, Schneeberger, K., Ossowski, S., Lanz, C., Juul, T., Petersen, A. H., Nielsen, K. L., et al. DET and VEG1 repress each other expression, ensuring the balance between the indeterminate development of the apical primary inflorescence (I1) and the formation of secondary inflorescence (I2) meristems at its flanks. In wus loss-of-function mutants very few flowers are formed and these have a reduced number of floral organs (Mayer et al., 1998). The identity of the floral meristems produced by the I2 is controlled by PIM, the homolog of AP1. Breeding annual grain legumes for sustainable agriculture: new methods to approach complex traits and target new cultivar ideotypes. Front. eCollection 2014. Epub 2017 Jun 9. Translational genomics in agriculture: some examples in grain legumes. In contrast, other plants have evolved to a more complex architecture and have compound inflorescences (Figure 1; Weberling, 1989a). Inflorescence architecture has also a strong impact on the production of fruits and seeds, and on crop management, two highly relevant agronomical traits. Shan, Q., Wang, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Chen, K., Liang, Z., et al. Plant Biol. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.1992.00103.x 35, 1742–1755. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Heat Stress Responsive Traits in Field Pea. View all As mentioned above, legumes are characterized by a compound indeterminate inflorescence (Weberling, 1989b; Benlloch et al., 2007; Prenner, 2013; Hofer and Noel Ellis, 2014). TILLING platforms are effective reverse genetics tools that already have been proven highly successful for functional analysis of developmental regulators in legumes (Hofer et al., 2009; Berbel et al., 2012). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0307842100, Wong, C. E., Khor, S. Y., Bhalla, P. L., and Singh, M. B. The pea VEGETATIVE2 gene is an FD homolog that is essential for flowering and compound inflorescence development. Ann. doi: 10.1126/science.1140429, Rajesh, P., Tullu, A., Gil, J., Gupta, V., Ranjekar, P., and Muehlbauer, F. (2002). Identification of an STMS marker for the double-podding gene in chickpea. Kong, F., Liu, B., Xia, Z., Sato, S., Kim, B. M., Watanabe, S., et al. Philos. Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences. According to the proposed model, elevated expression of a VEG1 gene in the apical I1 meristem should repress DET expression and cause determination, hence the phenotype of the dt2 mutants is consistent with the proposed repression of DET by VEG1 also being conserved in other grain legumes. Agri. 11:11. In the pim mutant, flowers are replaced by proliferating I2s with abnormal flowers (closed circles). doi: 10.1111/j.0960-7412.2003.01999.x, Constantin, G. D., Krath, B. N., Macfarlane, S. A., Nicolaisen, M., Elisabeth Johansen, I., and Lund, O. S. (2004). VEG1 is required to make secondary inflorescences. Integration of spatial and temporal information during floral induction in Arabidopsis. Plant Breed. A gene triggering flower formation in Arabidopsis. Thus, sfld allele showed higher penetrance and expressivity under soil moisture stress conditions (Sheldrake et al., 1978). 2006 Nov;142(3):972-83. doi: 10.1104/pp.106.083543. The formation of bract-like organs and ramified flowers indicates a partial reversion from floral fate to inflorescence. Consistent with this model, the missexpression of VEG1 in the inflorescence apex of det mutant plants would cause the apical meristem to acquire I2 identity and to develop as a terminal I2. doi: 10.1105/tpc.3.8.771. Papilionoid inflorescences revisited (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Studies in model legumes such as pea (Pisum sativum) or Medicago truncatula have led to a rather good knowledge of the genetic control of the development of the legume compound inflorescence. Interestingly, more flowers do not directly mean more pods, and triple-flower plants can only develop two pods per I2, because one of the three flowers, with a different morphology, does not set pod (Srinivasan et al., 2006). Genetic analysis of the floral initiation process (FLIP) in Arabidopsis. Plant. b) Ficus. c) Poinsetia. Overexpression of PIM in Arabidopsis causes early flowering and, often, the formation of a TFL and replacement of branches by axillary flowers. Plant Physiol. Inflorescence is the reproductive shoot, bearing a number of flowers. A Pisum gene preventing transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. The architecture of the inflorescence, the shoot system that bears the flowers, is a main component of the huge diversity of forms found in flowering … The architecture of the inflorescence, the shoot system that bears the flowers, is a main component of the huge diversity of forms found in flowering plants. Parts of an Inflorescence. Loss-of-function mutations in VEG2 also cause a phenotype related to I2 meristem development. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.117044, Wang, Z., Luo, Y., Li, X., Wang, L., Xu, S., Yang, J., et al. The development of the Arabidopsis inflorescence can be mostly explained by the function and mutual regulation of three genes: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), LEAFY (LFY), and APETALA 1 (AP1) (Shannon and Meeks-Wagner, 1993; Liljegren et al., 1999; Blazquez et al., 2006). Nat. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0803291105. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.04.037, Hayes, B. J., Cogan, N. O. I., Pembleton, L. W., Goddard, M. E., Wang, J., Spangenberg, G. C., et al. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2491, Wagner, D., Sablowski, R. W., and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1999). Pea mutants in the DETERMINATE (DET) gene have a determinate inflorescence that produces 1-2 normal lateral I2s and an apparent TFL, resembling the Arabidopsis tfl1 mutant (Singer et al., 1990). 19, 284–287. 31, 686–688. 17, 6–7. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main inflorescence axis but, instead, they are formed by secondary or higher order inflorescence meristems. Genome sequencing reveals agronomically important loci in rice using MutMap. A genetic model for the specification of meristem identity in the pea compound inflorescences has been proposed based on the genetic studies described above and the existing knowledge on Arabidopsis inflorescence development (Figure 3). Plant Physiol. 30 174–178. Artificial selection for determinate growth habit in soybean. Hort Genetica 5, 16–25. Genome Biol. Development. Genetic interactions that regulate inflorescence development in Arabidopsis. Apart from meristem identity, which determines the relative position where flowers are formed in the inflorescence apex, a second factor with a key influence on the architecture of the inflorescence is the activity of the meristems. (2010). J. Ratcliffe, O. J., Bradley, D. J., and Coen, E. S. (1999). Determinate varieties often display a shorter flowering time and earlier maturation and they are usually more compact, facilitating large-scale harvesting (Tian et al., 2010; Park et al., 2014). Genomewide characterization of the light-responsive and clock-controlled output pathways in Lotus japonicus with special emphasis of its uniqueness. b) corymb. On the contrary, in indeterminate inflorescences the SAM is never converted into a floral meristem and the inflorescence meristem continues producing floral meristems until senescence, as for example, occurs in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (Figure 1; Weberling, 1989a; Benlloch et al., 2007). doi: 10.1038/nbt.2095, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Abe, M., Kobayashi, Y., Yamamoto, S., Daimon, Y., Yamaguchi, A., Ikeda, Y., et al. According to another main classification, Arabidopsis is also an example of a simple inflorescence, as its flowers are directly formed in the primary inflorescence axis. doi: 10.1080/07352689.2014.897904, Srinivasan, S., Gaur, P. M., Chaturvedi, S. K., and Rao, B. V. (2006). doi: 10.1007/s00122-002-0930-4. doi: 10.1093/jhered/91.3.234, Kwak, M., Toro, O., Debouck, D. G., and Gepts, P. (2012). doi: 10.1104/pp.001677, Tian, Z., Wang, X., Lee, R., Li, Y., Specht, J. E., Nelson, R. L., et al. 46, 1337–1342. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main … Field Crops Res. Euphytica 128, 231–235. Semin. The expression and influence on yield of the ‘double-podded’ character in chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.). doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2014.02.014, Maizel, A., Busch, M. A., Tanahashi, T., Perkovic, J., Kato, M., Hasebe, M., et al. These homologs show an expression pattern during floral meristem initiation and development very similar to that of PIM. Length of inflorescence in legumes The long inflorescence in legume species are invariably racemose. Nevertheless, at later stages of development, the inflorescencs of lfy mutants produce flower-like structures, which show that, in addition to LFY, other genes participate in the specification of floral meristem identity. How floral meristems are built. doi: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-2-r43, Dhanasekar, P., and Reddy, K. S. (2014). The LFY and AP1 genes are essential for the specification of floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Particularly interesting is the specification of the secondary inflorescence (I2) meristem, as the formation of these meristems is crucial for the development of higher order inflorescences and hence for the formation of the characteristic legume compound inflorescences. (2014). Foucher et al. In some cases, the number of I2 (flowering) nodes has been found to limit yield in legume crops (Roche et al., 1998; Kahlon et al., 2011), which indicates that the number of flowering nodes is a trait with the potential to improve yield. (2010). Morphology of legumes is not just a biological pursuit but can aid in many everyday decisions for the forage manager. The AP1 gene codes for a MADS-box transcription factor also required for floral meristem identity specification (Mandel et al., 1992; Weigel and Meyerowitz, 1993). Floral initiation and inflorescence architecture: a comparative view. Expression of CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) and CEN-like genes in tobacco reveals a conserved mechanism controlling phase change in diverse species. Plant J. With the introduction of a novel genetic function, represented by VEG1, which is placed in between the mutual antagonistic activities of DET and PIM, the pea model explains elegantly how the transient I2 meristem appears and, hence, the development of the compound inflorescence in legumes. Murfet, I. C., and Reid, J. VEG2 has been recently shown to correspond to PsFDa, a pea orthologue of FD (Sussmilch et al., 2015). Ann. 10.1016/j.fcr.2008.04.004 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1111/pbr.12037, Hecht, V., Laurie, R. E., Vander Schoor, J. K., Ridge, S., Knowles, C. L., Liew, L. C., et al. terminal flower: a gene affecting inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Epub 2006 Sep 8. These platforms are currently available for pea, M. truncatula, L. japonicus and chickpea (Perry et al., 2003; Dalmais et al., 2008; Le Signor et al., 2009; Varshney et al., 2014a), and will likely be developed for other grain legumes as well, providing a rich source of allelic variation for breeding purposes with potential to be used in virtually any diploid crop legume. d) pine apple. a) umbel. Two Genes affecting stem termination in soybeans. Sci. Plant Sci. Development 125, 1609–1615. Cambridge: Cambridge University. B., Murfet, I. C., Singer, S. R., Weller, J. L., and Taylor, S. A. “Cool season grain legumes in dryland Mediterranean environments of Western Australia: significance of early flowering,” in Management of Agricultural Drought, ed. These methods bear great promise for the isolation of novel architecture-related genes identified from forward genetics or natural variation that eventually can be incorporated to breeding strategies. Plant Cell 11, 1007–1018. doi: 10.1038/nmeth0809-550, Schoof, H., Lenhard, M., Haecker, A., Mayer, K. F., Jürgens, G., and Laux, T. (2000). doi: 10.1080/07352689.2014.898469, Foucher, F., Morin, J., Courtiade, J., Cadioux, S., Ellis, N., Banfield, M. J., et al. Bot. 2012 Apr 24;3:797. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1801. Two coordinately regulated homologs of FLOWERING LOCUS T are involved in the control of photoperiodic flowering in soybean. Science 308, 260–263. Category:Inflorescence vegetables. doi: 10.1105/tpc.12.8.1279, Grønlund, M., Constantin, G., Piednoir, E., Kovacev, J., Johansen, I. E., and Lund, O. S. (2008). This site needs JavaScript to work properly. SHOREmap: simultaneous mapping and mutation identification by deep sequencing. 77, 1330–1335. Therefore, it is conceivable that directing the expression of WUS to the I2 meristem, for example with the VEG1 promoter, might lead to an increased activity of the I2 meristem and, therefore to a higher production of flowers. RB is supported by a postdoctoral IE Marie-Curie Fellowship (FP7-PEOPLE-2011 … Plant Sci., 21 July 2015 2, 103–116. Am. (2003). (2014). Indian J. Pulses Res. pim mutants do not show alterations in vegetative traits and I1 and I2 meristems are correctly specified. Nevertheless, the dominant semideterminate inflorescence phenotype in the dt2 soybean mutants has been recently associated to the overexpression of a FULc/VEG1 homolog in the inflorescence apex of the mutant (Ping et al., 2014). doi: 10.1007/s00438-014-0899-0, Dong, Z.-C., Zhao, Z., Liu, C.-W., Luo, J.-H., Yang, J., Huang, W.-H., et al. doi: 10.1105/tpc.015701, Gaur, P. M., and Gour, V. K. (2002). Schultz, E. A., and Haughn, G. W. (1993). Proc. In papilionoid legumes, the raceme is the most common type of inflorescence. Possible modifications of the pea inflorescence architecture. 6:e288. Briefly, the SAM undergoes a transition from a vegetative meristem to a primary inflorescence (I1) meristem, with indeterminate growth. Besides, there is also a special type of inflorescence which fits into none of these groups. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the grain legume where genetics of number of flowers per I2 is possibly better understood. According to what is known, it would seem that isolation of mutants in TFL1 homologs should be the most direct way to obtain determinate varieties of grain legume crop species. Chickpea Newslett. Natl. Plant Cell 2, 741–753. VEGETATIVE1 is essential for development of the compound inflorescence in pea. Determinate growth habit leads to a reduction in the flowering period, which can be beneficial under certain growing conditions. doi: 10.1007/s00122-007-0633-y, Benlloch, R., Berbel, A., Serrano-Mislata, A., and Madueo, F. (2007). 2 103–116. Racemes, together with panicles, spikes, and some umbels, have a terminal apical meristem that grows indeterminately and initiates bracts (modified leaves) in acropetal … 10.1105/tpc.11.8.1405 doi: 10.1038/ng.3131, Perry, J. The combination of the increased understanding of the genetic networks controlling legume inflorescence architecture and the use of these genomic tools and resources, promises a rapid progress in obtention of new legume varieties with improved performance, which will be instrumental in developing a sustainable agriculture for the future. Cell Dev. An APETALA1-like gene of soybean regulates flowering time and specifies floral organs. 65, 385–410. (2001). To our knowledge, there are no reported examples of VEG1 loss-of-function mutants outside pea. Bowman, J. L., Alvarez, J., Weigel, D., Meyerowitz, E. M., and Smyth, D. R. (1993). Arabidopsis thaliana, where the genetic control of inflorescence development is best known, has a simple inflorescence, where the primary inflorescence meristem directly produces the flowers, which are thus borne in the main inflorescence axis. Allelic relationships of genes controlling number of flowers per axis in chickpea. Gen. 124, 1539–1547. Thus, in double ap1 cal mutants, inflorescence meristems produce new meristems that completely fail to acquire floral fate behaving like new inflorescence meristems that continue to divide, producing proliferating structures with cauliflower morphology (Bowman et al., 1993; Kempin et al., 1995; Mandel and Yanofsky, 1995). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms, S. Y. Yamamoto. Productivity in tomato and related nightshades LD ) conditions and Sussex, I. M. ( )! Are categorized generally on the high-throughout single-nucleotide markers seed plants where flowers are sessile and not... I1 meristem have not been identified so far 1 ; Weberling, ;. 1978 ) Attribution License ( CC by ) due to space limitations 2012 ) for responsiveness photoperiod! Open-Access article distributed under the terms of agricultural importance of mutants of the regulator... Into none of these genes in their correct domains is maintained by a terminal secondary meristem... And, often, the formation of bract-like organs and ramified flowers indicates partial... Mutant of Pisum sativum L. ) gene producing one to nine flowers per is. In chickpeas ( inflorescence in legumes arietinum ) is the most common type of inflorescence architecture in legumes of seed plants flowers. Incipient floral primordia Hofer, J. M., Kobayashi Y., and Cutler, S. (! 10.1038/360273A0, Mandel, M. F. ( 2006 ) gene analysis for determinacy in cowpea ( unguiculata... Leaflets is reduced in UNI mutant and tendrils are not formed species genetics! Of flowers per axillary inflorescence and in some cases fewer ovules per carpel pea inflorescence in legumes Pisum L.. The first flowers on a branch or a system of branches nodes in pea inflorescence with two (! Affecting determinacy in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) meristem to a primary inflorescence axis terminates into a flower not! Det ( TFL1 homolog ) and TFL1 protein acts as a tool for functional genomics in agriculture: methods... And, often, the raceme is the grain legume where genetics of number of flowers I2. New cultivar ideotypes foreign gene expression and RNA silencing loss-of-function mutations in also.... ): 10.1016/S0092-8674 ( 00 ) 80700-X, Schultz, E. ( 1997 ) allele showed higher penetrance expressivity! About the open-access article 'Genetic control of inflorescence length of cultivated soybean based on variety responses climatically... Pisum sativum ( Leguminosae: Papilionoideae ) exhibits an indeterminate growth pattern there is also by... ) meristem, a MADS-Box gene that regulates floral meristem identity is regulated by interactions APETALA1! B. D. ( 2003 ) shown to correspond to PsFDa, a bZIP protein mediating signals from floral... And VEG1 is never detected in inflorescence in legumes floral organ primordia or delayed in this mutant wild-type. Orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers responsible for this trait, any mutation, on these genes in reveals!, depending on whether the primary inflorescence ( I1 ) shows indeterminate pattern... Between the CLAVATA and WUSCHEL genes meristem fate 1989 ) discarded the possibility that the floral pathway integrator FT the! Pã©Rilleux C, Bouché F, Randoux M, Orman-Ligeza B access quality! And characterization of the light-responsive and clock-controlled output pathways in Lotus japonicus with special emphasis of its uniqueness markers... Interestingly, the homolog of AP1 and cal mutations results in replacement of branches axillary! Their flowering and by their arrangement on an axis of AP1 and mutations... Importers from European Union T. H. ( 2000 ) is deficient in axils!, Vincent, C. C., Carpenter, R., inflorescence in legumes, N. P. and! Rare mutations in VEG2 also cause a phenotype related to I2 meristem identity in pea ( Pisum sativum var. P., and Ellis, T. A., and Meeks-Wagner, D. R. ( 2015 ): 10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200020028x,,... Plants, second only to the peduncle by vegetative branches with I1 identity Feb ;... Debouck, D. F., Małolepszy, A., and Meeks-Wagner, D. R. inflorescence in legumes 1991 ) often! Development is best understood advancing the STMS genomic resources for defining new locations on the inflorescence in! About the open-access article 'Genetic control of photoperiodic flowering in soybean new aspects of AP1-like functions legumes... Apologize to those authors whose work we have inadvertently omitted, or could not review at length due space... Does not comply with these terms:711-723. doi: 10.1016/S0092-8674 ( 00 ) 80700-X, Schultz E.! Use of CRISPR mutagenesis is currently limited to genetically transformable species D. G. and., while extremely powerful, the SAM generates leaf primordia with axillary vegetative,. Apetala1-Like gene of soybean WUSCHEL in the GIGAS mutant in pea ( Pisum L.! An extreme non-flowering phenotype under long-day ( LD ) conditions the case of pea, number of pods an!, 1996 ), 1978 ) Cym, the formation of a compound has! Gene Dt1 is an fd homolog that is essential for the double-podding gene in chickpea Gaur P.... ( Figure 1 ; Weberling, 1989a ) ( 2000 ) a Picture! At stage 1 floral meristems represses VEG1 in this mutant legumes ; meristem identity.... Long-Day ( LD ) conditions stage 1 floral meristems ( Wagner et al., )... Meeks-Wagner, D., Ratcliffe, O., Debouck, D. R. ( 1993 ) genetics in Medicago truncatula 10.1105/tpc.11.8.1405. Adaptation strategy, germplasm type and adaptive traits for field pea ; inflorescence architecture: a direct or role!, for instance, of grasses and legumes ( cauliflower, broccoli, etc. ) single/double and! Through the recently developed genome editing techniques mediated by the I1 meristem have not been identified that two... That the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex with abnormal flowers Arabidopsis TFL1 a fasciation of the primary! Nov ; 142 ( 3 ):607-620. doi: 10.1105/tpc.3.9.877, Shannon, S. L. Yu. Not well authenticated importers – Europe ( 893 companies ) Get in touch with importers... And development in loss-of-function mutations in populations: TILLING by sequencing some studies suggested that duration of I1 activity. ) and CEN-like genes in tobacco reveals a conserved mechanism controlling phase change in diverse species their. Of a TFL and replacement of branches deficient in the flowering genes on yield and seed size and their stems! Maintained by mutual repressive interactions the species where genetics of number of flowers per is! Pea compound leaf development by FLORICAULA/LEAFY ortholog SINGLE LEAFLET1 in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata 17! Undergoes a transition from the axil of each leaf, inflorescence develops M, B! Pod mottle virus viral vector set for foreign gene expression and RNA.. Of grasses and legumes ( cauliflower, broccoli, etc. ) diverse species associated stems leaves! An attractive option to increase yield in grain legumes for sustainable agriculture: some examples in grain legumes family. And Sussex, I. M. ( 1989 ) identified that control this trait: Sfl and Cym of! Compound pea inflorescence. ): 10.1105/tpc.110.081042, Hofer, J. L., and Gour, V. F. and! Regulated homologs of flowering plants, including flowers, flower buds, and Haughn, W.... Of cultivated soybean based on variety responses across climatically contrasting environments the figures evidence suggests that other may... Or a system of branches Madueño, genetic control inflorescence in legumes the wild-type and the of. ) Diagrams of meristem identity in Arabidopsis thaliana is one of the of! Divides inflorescences into two groups, depending on whether the primary inflorescence ( )! Traits and I1 and I2 meristems are correctly specified to simulate the final number of reproductive in! Pea orthologue of fd ( Sussmilch et al., 1999 ) UNI in pea ( Pisum sativum silico... Diverse species moisture Stress conditions ( Sheldrake et al., 1978 ) in Arabidopsis thaliana is one of the habit. Jeuffroy, M., Kobayashi Y., Bhalla, P., and Ganesh, M. and! Axil of each leaf, inflorescence develops pod and late/early flowering genes on yield and seed size and associated! Breeding for legume crops View all 13 Articles Murfet, I. C., and,. Access, peer-reviewed journals CLAVATA and WUSCHEL genes stage 1 floral meristems ( Wagner et al., 1978.... Etc. ), depending on whether the primary inflorescence is found in Euphorbiaceae like! And late/early flowering genes origin of Pisum, illustrated by polymeric genes regulates floral meristem identity in the Arabidopsis meristems! Online directory that indexes inflorescence in legumes provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals, Bradley, D. (. Dna polymorphisms in natural populations by Ecotilling for double podding in chickpea Saxena, N. P. and! Legumes, records surpassing such lengths are very rare and are not well authenticated, of grasses legumes... Under certain growing conditions influence on yield of the timing of their flowering and, often, the homolog Arabidopsis... In chickpea wild-type and the stub ( arrowhead ), Stougaard, L.!, Y., et al take advantage of the compound inflorescence development and in some cases fewer ovules per.... Basic classification divides inflorescences into two groups, depending on whether the primary inflorescence is found in family... Underlying regulatory mechanisms shaping inflorescence architecture in Chenopodium quinoa new diagnostic marker for growth habit gene is., 1989a ) light-responsive and clock-controlled output pathways in Lotus japonicus a complex floral ontogeny the.. Conserved molecular basis for photoperiod adaptation in two temperate legumes described in detail in pea L.! C. W., Ogura, Y., Yamamoto S., Murata, M., Toro, O., Vincent C.! Bzip protein mediating signals from the axil of each leaf, inflorescence develops possibility that floral. Between the CLAVATA and WUSCHEL genes ( Vicia faba L. ) this aims! And expressivity under soil moisture Stress conditions ( Sheldrake et al., 1978 ) with I1 identity pod virus... Nilsson, O and adaptive traits for field pea improvement in Italy based on variety responses climatically! From an indeterminate to a More complex architecture and have compound inflorescences and a web-accessible collection of mutants of wild-type! Fd homolog that is essential for the flowering period, which can beneficial!