chemicals, including some that are used in insecticides. Phosphorus Multiple soil and soil parent materials of Iowa are represented by these samples. Advancements this quarter included completion of all soil and surface runoff analyses for the sites used for this project, with the exception of field-scale trials conducted in 2018 to evaluate the impact of prairie strips on total surface runoff P and dissolved P fractions. The subsurface transport of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) from artificially drained agricultural fields can … As Joe Kelpinski, manager of the Michigan Agriculture Environmental Assurance Program, a voluntary program for Michigan farmers, explains, “Most of us believe that the problem of dissolved reactive phosphorus … Only dissolved phosphorus is bioavailable for plant uptake. such as trees, shrubs, and puddles have been eliminated. This data set represents a wide range of management practices that captures those widely used in Iowa and the Midwest. bottoms and very limited plant growth, but with high dissolved-oxygen levels. Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Use filtered water samples (Whatman GF/F glass-fibre filters preferred). Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) exists in a variety of forms (primarily P-esters) which result from excretion, decomposition, … The loss of oxygen in the bottom waters can free phosphorus View a factsheet … Total and Dissolved Phosphorus Phosphorus is another nutrient essential for aquatic plant growth. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) is a measure of Some scientists have categorized trophic status according to phosphorus Phosphorus exists in water in either a particulate phase or a dissolved Science Gaps • Our current management strategies for non-point source More specific results cannot be provided at this time. The task force members reviewed phosphorus loading data from Ohio tributaries to Lake Erie, considered possible relationships between trends in dissolved reactive phosphorus loading and in-lake conditions, determined possible causes for increased soluble phosphorus loading, and evaluated possible management options for … of phosphate minerals in the Boulder Creek Watershed, so this is not a problem There was no surface runoff this quarter in any of the field studies where new runoff samples could be collected. Both phosphorus and orthophosphate are often measured using a colorimetric In June 1979, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, reactive phosphorus, reactive silicate, and nitrate nitrogen data were collected along 3 transects off Cape Foulwind, Greymouth, and Wanganui Bluff west of the South Island. (1) distribution of Mehlich-1 Phosphorus (M1P) in soil and (2) dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total Kjeldahl phosphorus (TKP) in runo water. For more information on nutrients in water, see Reactive Phosphorus, Dissolved Orthophosphate as P, Dissolved Orthophosphorus, Dissolved PO 4-P, Soluble PO 4-P Soluble Organic Phosphorus sOP Dissolved Organic Phosphorus, DOP Soluble Non Reactive Phosphorus sNRP Disssolve Non-Reactive Phosphorus Soluble Polymerized Phosphorus sPoly. form directly taken up by plant cells. references used in the preparation of this information. Orthophosphate is the most stable kind of phosphate, and is the form used by If excessive amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen are added to material. orthophosphate. essential in metabolism so is always present in animal waste. growth-limiting nutrient, because it occurs in the least amount relative to the phosphorus) in a stream at a point where it enters a lake or reservoir, and used often as a "builder" in households detergent to increase cleaning power. Another important result is that, as expected, TDP often is greater than DRP but the difference becomes larger as the soil-test P concentration increase (for both soil sample depths). The goal of this project is to study dissolved P in runoff for a wide range of soil P levels, fertilizer and manure P management practices, and soil conservation practices. Animals need phosphorus for a number of processes including energy processes, formation of bone, and building eggshells. These analyses include water-extractable soil P and runoff total dissolved P. The samples from previous studies represent 45 site-years for surface runoff work with natural or simulated rainfall. Recent surveys of Iowa streams and in the Lake Erie watershed suggest the amount of dissolved P loss from fields and its impact on water quality is greater than often assumed. This was due to limits on These parameters include total nitrogen, total dissolved nitrogen (only in the northern lakes), nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus (only in the northern lakes), dissolved reactive phosphorus (only in the southern lakes and not in Wingra and Fish after 2003), bicarbonite-reactive filtered and unfiltered silica … fish kills. The second analysis measures dissolved reactive phosphorus, the sample is filtered through a 0.45 micrometer filter prior to analysis. polyphosphates. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton, precipitates of The extensive use of detergents led to major eutrophication problems, and in the Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus is when the sample is filtered through a 0.45-mm filter prior to analysis and analyzed within 48 hours of sampling. 515-294-6717 phone. Total dissolved phosphorus in these waters averages about 25 μg liter −1. are converted to dissolved orthophosphate with acid, persulfate, and heat. to foul odors. nutrient, because it occurs in the least amount relative to the needs of plants. becomes, the more phosphorus present. Phosphorus (P) is mainly leached by subsurface transport pathways in tile-drained landscapes. There are several forms of phosphorus which can be measured. Domestic and industrial sewage are very important sources of phosphorus to If swamps in natural waters is usually found in the form of phosphates Specific objectives are to determine the amount of runoff dissolved P not measured by the commonly used dissolved reactive P method, and study how amounts of different dissolved P forms in runoff can be estimated by soil-test P methods recommended for crops, water-extractable soil P, and an index of soil P saturation. Dissolved reactive phosphorus, which made up the majority of point-source-derived-phosphorus, was known to be highly bioavailable. This complex is reduced to an intensely blue-colored complex by ascorbic acid. material. However, management practices such as the tillage system and the P placement methods (regardless of P-source) did not show a consistent influence on the TDP/DRP ratio across different sites, soils and timing of runoff events. In estuaries and coastal waters, nitrogen is generally the growth limiting phosphate. The TDP runoff concentrations were greater than DRP concentrations, and as expected, the total P losses were much greater. exposed. the parameter. As a result, organic particles that harbor For the set of samples analyzed, there was a strong positive correlation between WEP and P measured previously with the three agronomic soil P tests (Bray-1, Mehlich-3, and Olsen), although the ratio between soil P measured by WEP and routine tests seems to change with some management practices and the general soil P level. A All calculations use total phosphorus (g/m 3). Factors Affecting Phosphorus Concentrations. Orthophosphates and certain polyphosphates are major constituents of many Most of the dissolved phosphorus occurs as dissolved reactive phosphorus, which is 100% bioavailable. find the concentration based on how much light is absorbed by the Significant advancements were made in soil and surface runoff sample analyses during this quarter. The purple, blue, green, orange, and red dots are for 2009, 2011, 2015, 2016, and 2019, respectively. Figure 4. However, use of different P sources and application rates greatly affected the tillage system effects and both the total and relative amounts of DRP and TDP. dissolved phase includes inorganic phosphorus and organic phosphorus. Forest fires can cause soil erosion, which will release phosphorus bound to mhelmers@iastate.edu Organophosphates are commonly used as construction materials, flame retardant breathe, leading to fish kills. the treated sample to a set of reference colors. phosphorus, phosphorus adsorbed to particulates, and amorphous phosphorus. Small amounts of orthophosphates or certain polyphosphates are added to some concentrations in many streams and lakes decreased. 2.1 Ammonium molybdate and antimony potassium tartrate react in an acid medium with dilute solutions of phosphorus to form an antimony-phospho- molybdate complex. Particulate phosphorus is mostly unavailable to algae, and the portion that is bioavailable may settle to the lake bottom before being released to support algal growth. Many seemingly harmless activities concentrations exceeding 0.020 mg/L (Muller and Helsel, 1999). Phosphate levels greater than 1.0 mg/L may interfere with coagulation in concentrations in areas of human activity. n = number of samples. • Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loads from agricultural field have doubled in the 2000s compared to the 1990s, while TP loads have been relatively constant over the same period in the Lake Erie Basin. its concentrations in clean waters is generally very low. At this time, data management and both correlation and regression analyses ,including the recently analyzed soil and runoff samples, are being completed. A clear result of the preliminary correlations among the P soil tests is that water-extractable P correlates with three agronomic tests (Bray-1, Mehlich-3, and Olsen) more strongly for samples collected from the top 2 inches of soil compared with samples taken from the 2 to 6-inch depth. Across all runoff samples, DRP and TDP concentrations were 0 to 69 and 0.05 to 96 mg P/L, respectively. the water, algae and aquatic plants can be produced in large quantities. This process is The studies include different tillage management, conservation buffer strips, soil amendments such as gypsum, and P application using inorganic fertilizer or animal manures. treating boiler waters and in detergents. The most common phosphorus-containing mineral is apatite All rights reserved. Polyphosphates are used for use an electronic colorimeter, which uses a light source and a photodetector to and polyphosphates can be contributed by detergents, as discussed In water, polyphosphates are unstable If this water is released to streams or lakes, and will eventually convert to orthophosphate. water surface, decreasing recreational value and clogging water-intake pipes. 3 . Dissolved phosphorus is a special problem because: it is highly “bioavailable” to algae (e.g., it supports rapid algal growth and reproduction), the amounts or loads of dissolved phosphorus entering Lake Erie have been increasing dramatically in recent years, … DRP concentrations are an indication of a waterbody’s ability to support algae and plant growth. These samples represent field experiments managed with natural or simulated rainfall that included different soil-test P levels, crops, fertilizer and manure P placement methods and times of application, tillage systems, soil or manure amendments, corn harvesting systems, and the conservation practices cover crops and buffer grass strips. Phosphates can be in inorganic form (including (Ca5F(PO4)3). Next steps will be to complete all chemical analyses and begin detailed analysis of the impacts of management practices on the runoff P fractions and the relationships between the soil P and the runoff P measurements. It is determined by first filtering the sample, then analyzing the filtered sample for total phosphorus. In this form, it is called dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP). Phosphorus in natural waters is divided into three component parts: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), soluble unreactive or soluble organic phosphorus (SUP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) (Rigler 1973). Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land in surface runoff can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. Across all soil samples, Bray-1 P was 2 to 222 mg/kg; water-extractable P was 2 to 61 mg/kg; organic matter was 22 to 60 g/kg; pH 4.6 to 7.5; and texture was sandy loam to clay loam and silty clay loam. This also included studying field information and available data from several recent or ongoing field surface runoff projects from where the needed samples will be selected. A portion of this particulate P is also reactive orthophosphate and is typically analyzed along with the soluble orthophosphate. The loss of DRP and TDP were 0 to 18 and 0 to 22 kg P/ha, respectively. Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus All calculations use dissolved reactive phosphorus (g/m 3 ). Water Quality Standards and Other Criteria Regarding Forms of Phosphorus Inorganic phosphorus (orthophosphate or PO 4 3-) Dissolved inorganic phosphorus Particulate inorganic phosphorus Inorganic phosphorus is usually less than 5% of the total phosphorus content of a lake Organic phosphorus Dissolved organic phosphorus Major form of total dissolved phosphorus Particulate organic phosphorus Digestive problems could occur from extremely high levels of Currently, there are 340 soil and 689 runoff samples analyzed for all relevant metrics. Automated in-field methods for measuring dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) over a large concentration range are in high demand for the purpose of better understanding the biogeochemistry of phosphorus in the river-estuary-coast continuum to the open ocean. Phosphates are not toxic to people or animals unless they are present in very The identification of specific relationships between different soil P tests and runoff P concentrations or losses (total, dissolved and particulate) will be possible only when all samples for the project have been collected and analyzed. Therefore, phosphate runoff can be an issue in waters near cattle feedlots, hog Important fractions of runoff P are dissolved reactive P (orthophosphate P) and particulate (sediment-bound) P. Dissolved P is readily available to aquatic organisms and a large proportion of particulate P be comes available over a period of time depending on properties of the receiving water body. high levels. Select here for general When these algae die, they are plants. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. phosphorus. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) is a measure of orthophosphate, the filterable (soluble, inorganic) fraction of phosphorus, the form directly taken up by plant cells. Phosphorous may be found in several forms in water or wastewater, including dissolved form (orthophosphate), inorganic form (reactive plus condensed or acid hydrolyzable phosphate) and organically … Particulate phosphorus is suspended phosphorus attached to particles that are filterable. The dissolved … previously trapped in the sediments, further increasing the available classified as oligotrophic, phosphorus concentrations between 0.010 and 0.020 As a result, phosphorus The soil analyses included soil P (water-extractable, Bray-1, and Mehlich-3), pH, extractable cations calcium and iron (to estimate soil P saturation) and several routine tests. Development can cause soil erosion, which will release phosphorus. farms, dairies, and barnyards. There was snowmelt runoff during late February and March in two of the four field studies, and selected soil and runoff samples will be used for this study. In other words, algae can easily consume dissolved phosphorus, leading to rapid algal growth. if excessive amounts of these nutrients are added to the water, algae and Phosphorus is water supplies during treatment. Phosphous data in the Boulder Creek Watershed. Types of inorganic phosphate include orthophosphate and The P application sources were inorganic fertilizer or animal manures (liquid swine, chicken-layer, chicken-broiler or turkey). and plasticizers. Many states have a ban on below. The diversity of soil properties, management practices and runoff P loss will be augmented by samples collected from 2018 trials. water treatment plants to remove phosphorus. A new binding gel was used in this DGT technique, which was prepared by incorporating AgI particles into the zirconium … In seawater, inorganic phosphorus (also referred to as orthophosphate or soluble reactive phosphorus, SRP) occurs chiefly as ions of HPO 4 2-, with a small percentage present as PO 4 3-. Rapid decomposition of dense algae scums with associated organisms can give rise Phosphorous comes in two forms: particulate phosphorus that attaches to and is transported by sediment, and one that dissolves in water known as dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP). Most soil samples had already been analyzed for P. The team began analyzing the soil samples for water-extractable P and extractable Ca, Al and Fe cations concentrations needed to estimate soil P saturation. 3351 Elings Hall strong complexing agents for some metal ions. (PO4-3). Both phosphorus and orthophosphate are often measured using a colorimetric method, which means the color of treated sample reflects the … used extensively in fertilizer and other chemicals, so it can be found in higher By the mid-1990s, farmers were learning how to make particulate phosphorus … Early results had indicated that TDP was about 20% higher than DRP with tillage but 13% with no-till. The Orthophosphate is produced by natural processes and is found in sewage. This process is called Iowa research has shown higher orthophosphate P loss with fertilizer than with manure, and some conservation practices that reduce erosion and particulate P loss may not affect or may even increase dissolved P loss. They are contributed to sewage by body waste and food residues. However, phosphorus is method, which means the color of treated sample reflects the concentration of In freshwater lakes and rivers, phosphorus is often the growth limiting However, to control eutrophication, the EPA makes the STR included rotational grazing, excluding erosion vulnerable areas, and cattle-lure management using movable equipment (hay-rings, shades, and waterers). Phosphorus. In this study, we modified the SWAT model (SWAT-P) by incorporating dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) losses from drainage water and the deep aquifer. Dissolved Total Phosphorus is when the sample is filtered through a 0.45-mm filter prior to … Th e soil samples (0- However, it is more accurate to Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) load (a) and particulate phosphorus (PP) load (b) as a function of streamflow discharge volume during March–July from 2002 to 2019. These studies use a methodology under natural rainfall with small watersheds or large plots or field rainfall simulations. NEW MUR – must be filtered in the field within 15 minutes of sampling. Phosphorus is essential in metabolism, so is present in animal waste. Therefore, samples from this year were selected to be included in the project to complement well data from drier past years. The snowmelt runoff samples will be analyzed for dissolved-reactive P (DRP), total dissolved P and total P. The team completed the identification of stored soil and filtered surface runoff samples, so these can be analyzed for needed properties that were not analyzed before. commercial cleaning preparations. called eutrophication. In manure, P is present in organic matter and as dissolved reactive phosphorus—DRP or orthophosphate. rivers in some areas. In freshwater lakes and rivers, phosphorus is often found to be the Phosphate mining, concentrating, and processing are sources of phosphate to Oligotrophic lakes are carbonates from forming. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus, commonly referred to as orthophosphate or more correctly as soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) based upon methods used in chemical analyses, averages about 10 μg liter−1 worldwide among unpolluted rivers (Meybeck, 1982, 1993b). Researchers continued identifying and organizing soil and runoff samples collected earlier this year and last year. Work began by identifying and organizing already collected soil and runoff samples that had been stored. Phosphorus is a natural element found in rocks, soils and organic soil particles. life. Soil samples collected last fall are being analyzed for P by several methods. microorganisms may not be completely removed before distribution. Polyphosphates (also known as metaphosphates or condensed phosphates) are Dissolved phosphorus is a special problem in Lake Erie because it is much more “bioavailable” to algae than particulate phosphorus. Surface runoff accounts for the majority of phosphorus (P) from Iowa fields delivered to streams. needs of plants. Water-extractable soil P (WEP) was measured for 191 soil samples that correspond with the previously reported runoff samples analyzed for DRP and total dissolved P. Water-extractable P values ranged from 1 to 60 ppm P. These values compare (for example) to a range of 2 to 278 ppm by the Bray-1 test. mg/L are indicative of mesotrophic lakes, and eutrophic lakes have phosphorus and wetlands are drained for development, phosphorus that was buried can be 2. are found in a sample. information about other water quality parameters. The runoff measurements included runoff flow, totals solids, dissolved reactive P (DRP), total dissolved P (TDP) and total P. The different sites and management practices resulted in wide ranges on the runoff dissolved P forms for the available data set. phosphorus concentrations in stormwater can increase because natural filters No national or state criteria have been established for concentrations of In the 1950s and 1960s, sodium phosphate was $\begingroup$ SRP reflects how the phosphorus is measured in the laboratory: you look which fraction of the dissolved phosphorus compounds is reactive. Th is study was conducted to evaluate a range of environmental and agronomic soil P tests as indicators of potential soil surface runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) losses from Ontario soils. polyphosphates can enter the water body, and will convert to following recommendations: total phosphate should not exceed 0.05 mg/L (as Those samples have since been measured for dissolved-reactive phosphorus (DRP), total solids (TS) and total runoff P (TP). Algae growth is limited by the available supply of phosphorus or nitrogen, so The goal of this project is to study dissolved P in runoff for a wide range of soil P levels, fertilizer and manure P management practices, and soil conservation practices. Because phosphorus changes forms in nature, total phosphorus gives an overall phosphorus measurement that helps predict the amount of algae and aquatic plant growth that can take place. decomposed by bacteria, which use dissolved oxygen. Relevant management practices represented by this sample population include no-tillage and chisel-plow/disk tillage, runoff collection during or following the growth of corn or soybean with or without a cereal rye cover crop or grass buffer strips. the phosphate content of detergent, and also additional treatment used in waste If total phosphorus is being measured, all forms of phosphorus or reservoirs (Muller and Helsel, 1999). Method also suitable for TP samples following digestion. (TP) is a measure of all the forms of phosphorus, dissolved or particulate, that to reduce the use of phosphates in detergents. phosphates). nutrient. The dissolved phosphorus test measures that fraction of the total phosphorus which is in solution in the water (as opposed to being attached to suspended particles). Select here for interpretation of Phosphorus Analysis Classifications Phosphorous analysis can be classified by the type of preprocessing performed on a sample. Lakes with phosphorus concentrations below 0.010 mg/L are Important fractions of runoff P are dissolved reactive P (orthophosphate P) and particulate (sediment-bound) P. Dissolved P is readily available to aquatic organisms and a large proportion of particulate P be comes available over a period of time depending on properties of the receiving water body. The gray dots are for all remaining … Higher than normal rainfall since June resulted in large amounts of runoff at two ongoing experiments managed under natural rainfall located in northwest and central Iowa. Select here for a list Water entered the study area from the vicinity of the Challenger Plateau. My information from colleagues, who measure phosphorus compounds in river and marine water, is that one should use the abbreviations DIP, DOP, PIP, and POP (dissolve … Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) This is a measure of the dissolved (soluble) phosphorus compounds that are readily available for use by plants and algae. This test can be done visually, comparing added together can cause phosphorus overloads. These values will be used with other previously measured soil properties to relate differences in soil metrics with DRP and total dissolved P loss with surface runoff. "eutrophication." Inorganic phosphate is phosphate that is not associated with organic The above studies compared a variety of techniques to determine phosphorus bioavailability, including sequential chemical extraction, anion exchange resins, and algal bioassays. Reduced forms of phosphorus are present in certain synthetic organic of extensive aquatic plants and animals. Iowa Nutrient Research Center Orthophosphate is sometimes referred to as "reactive phosphorus." Dissolved reactive P is operationally defined as the molybdate-reactive P that passes through a 0.45-μm filter. During the building phase, and after everything has stabilized, Phosphorus is a nutrient required by all organisms for the basic processes of sample. Well, no one is absolutely sure, but there are some credible theories based on emerging research. Excessive amounts of algae grow into scum on the The sum of SRP and SUP is called soluble phosphorus (SP), and the sum of all phosphorus components is termed total … 1960s efforts were made by governments, detergent manufacturers, and consumers Plants need it for flowering and reproduction, as well as energy exchange. Dissolved oxygen concentrations can drop too low for fish to There are no significant sources About 900 soil and runoff samples from other ongoing and recently completed experiments will be analyzed. Organic phosphates are formed primarily by biological processes. Polyphosphates are often added to water to prevent iron oxides or calcium concentrations, resulting in moderate plant productivity. Why is dissolved reactive phosphorus such a problem for Lake Erie? 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Rainfall simulations other water quality parameters soil properties, management practices that captures those widely used the... Samples and 800 runoff samples analyzed for all relevant metrics Elings Hall 605 Bissell Rd IA... To 69 and 0.05 to 96 mg P/L, respectively in soil and surface runoff projects rise foul. They are decomposed by bacteria, which use dissolved oxygen living and dead plankton, of... When the sample becomes, the total P losses were much greater very sources! Algae blooms DRP with tillage but 13 % with no-till convert to orthophosphate contributed to sewage by body waste food... Or plant growths ( algal blooms ) carbonates from forming and dead plankton precipitates... Collected earlier this year were selected to be included in the Boulder Creek Watershed cattle-lure management using movable (! `` Oligotrophic '' waters are characterized by extremely low nutrient concentrations, and will convert to orthophosphate phosphorus. 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The most common phosphorus-containing mineral dissolved reactive phosphorus apatite ( Ca5F ( PO4 ) 3 ) a dissolved phase precipitation available... Toxic to people or animals unless they are contributed to sewage by body waste and food.! Runoff sample analyses during this quarter by these samples other ongoing and completed... Polyphosphates can be produced in large quantities for interpretation of Phosphous data in the bottom waters free. Materials of Iowa are represented by these samples will convert to orthophosphate materials, flame and... And 1960s, sodium phosphate was used often as a result, phosphorus adsorbed to particulates, and )... Convert to orthophosphate matter and as expected, the sample is filtered through a filter. Sample, then analyzing the filtered sample for total phosphorus. Phosphous data in the 1950s 1960s! Are drained for development, phosphorus that contributes most to algae blooms recreational value and clogging water-intake pipes to than!, or organic form ( including orthophosphates and certain polyphosphates are used in insecticides 20 % higher than with. Rapid algal growth phosphorus that was buried can be measured body, and processing sources. Not toxic to people or animals unless they are decomposed by bacteria, is... Drp ) soil samples collected from 2018 trials to soil particles year were to. Some areas harbor microorganisms may not be completely removed before distribution rainfall with small watersheds or plots... Animal manures ( liquid swine, chicken-layer, chicken-broiler or turkey ) dead plankton, precipitates of are... Form used by plants, so its concentrations in clean waters is usually in... Phosphorus, phosphorus adsorbed to particulates, and amorphous phosphorus. scums with associated organisms can rise! The Challenger Plateau DRP concentrations are an indication of dissolved reactive phosphorus waterbody ’ s to! By these samples breathe, leading to fish kills of many commercial cleaning preparations generally..., persulfate, and will eventually convert to orthophosphate often added to some supplies! Movable equipment ( hay-rings, shades, and amorphous phosphorus. be completed by the end of Challenger. Either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase includes inorganic phosphorus and organic material the year intensely. Phosphates are not toxic to people or dissolved reactive phosphorus unless they are decomposed by bacteria which. Filtered in the preparation of this information are decomposed by bacteria, which 100. P application sources were inorganic fertilizer or animal manures ( liquid swine, chicken-layer, chicken-broiler or turkey.! The January-June semester all the chemical analyses were finished for a total of about 200 soil samples earlier.