The power which undertakes the colonization is usually wealthy and well developed. Where colonialism can be seen as force. Under the United States Constitution and the Treaty of Paris, the right to private property in the Philippines was to be respected. 20. The conversion of land to private property exposed the native population to more economic exploitation. The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institution. Cushner, Nicolas P. Landed Estates in the Colonial Philippines. The Spanish missionaries also used Manila as initiating point of their evangelization activities. But the Philippine government felt that it had no choice but to accept the parity clause because of the desire to get the badly needed World War II damage payments promised under the Philippine Rehabilitation Act. In the wake of modern civilization, globalization connected the world closer and closer. Spanish colonization brought the advantages of wealth and technology to the Philippines. For one, they created the transistor, which allowed people to listen to live broadcasts of current news and events. Unfortunately, this is exactly what the British did to the Africans. With the United States Congress enactment of a law incorporating the Philippines into the American free trade market, American goods entered the Philippines free of duty and Philippine exports were given the same treatment in the United States. Farming communities around Manila and as far as Pampanga sent their crops down the Pasig River to the village of Manila where these were traded with Chinese products (Constantino, 1975). 2. Prior to the Spanish, local rulers were already trading with other Asian countries, notably China, Cambodia, and Thailand. RELIGIOUS RESULTS DURING SPANISH PERIOD The wall of Intramuros in Manila is a remnant of the Spanish colonial period. Consequently, demand for Philippine agricultural exports, particularly sugar, increased, making large agricultural estates even more attractive. On the other hand, many resented the discriminatory parity clause and continuing control over the monetary exchange policy. Consequently, much of the friar estates ended up in the hands of the Filipino elite as well as American individuals and corporations. ; The Spaniards made the local datus head of the barangays, who eventually acquired large landholdings. Colonialism is a political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. Their actions reinforced slavery in a new light of mental captivity, which, Europe and Asia in the nineteenth century, these nations to developed a dependence for economic growth due to exploitation of the people and land. The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries, the longest period that the Philippines experienced foreign rule. The Chinese population outside Intramuros (Walled City of Manila) remained large compared with the Spanish community, despite the massacres resulting from their periodic uprisings, and consequent expulsions by the colonial authorities. This notion could be defined in different ways. The Philippines: A Past Revisited. Spain lost, and so they had to hand over the Philippine islands to the United States, who then took their place as overseers for the next fifty years. Philippines - Philippines - Martial law: In September 1972 Marcos declared martial law, claiming that it was the last defense against the rising disorder caused by increasingly violent student demonstrations, the alleged threats of communist insurgency by the new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), and the Muslim separatist movement of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). The seriously needed agrarian reform that had generated mass support for the Philippine revolution was hardly considered by the new Filipino politicians (Pomeroy, 1970). SUPERVISOR: IVAR HENDLA. The friar lands that were confiscated by the short-lived Philippine Republic were therefore returned to the religious orders – the Dominicans, Recoletos, Augustinians, and Franciscans. Nathaniel von Einsiedel was the Commissioner for Planning of the former Metro Manila Commission from 1979 to 1989, after which he joined the United Nations as Regional Director for Asia-Pacific of the Urban Management Programme. Gust 12241 An excerpt from the author's book, Metro Manila: My City, My Home. TheCenterfor Philippine Studies at theUniversity ofHawaii at Manoain 1992embarked onanambitious programtoexaminecritically themeaningandimpactofthe"AgeofDiscovery" on Philippine culture and society following Columbus' voyage to the Americas in 1492. As the Spanish merchants kept their capital invested in Manila, the economic prosperity brought by the Galleon Trade was largely confined to Manila and its suburbs. Marching westward for more than a century, conquering and displacing Native Americans and Mexicans, the U.S. had reached the limits of continental expan-sion. Defenders of modern imperialism and colonialism long pleaded their case in terms, In the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, colonialism was a constant threat to the Natives living in the Americas. Sparked by the brief Spanish-Cuban-American War of 1898, the Philippine War marked an important step in America’s emergence as a global power. Part of the policy was to baptize the converts and give them Spanish last names in alphabetical order by town so that evangelization would be well organized (Cushner, 1976). The two laws restored the status quo of the Philippines before the war, by perpetuating the country’s dependence on the United States as market of its select cash crops, as source of raw materials critical to the US economy, and as consumer of American manufactured goods (Shalom, 1980). This paved the way to the alienation of much of native landholdings, individual as well as communal, and their eventual concentration in private hands. Manila’s harbor was modernized. Here are some of the important pros and cons of American Imperialism you can consider: List of Pros of American Imperialism. In retrospect, Manila’s prosperity as brought by the Galleon Trade contributed to rapid urbanization. The victory of Commodore George Dewey at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 paved the way for a half-century of American rule. Direct participation in the Galleon Trade was limited to the Spaniards in Manila – the merchants, civil servants and religious orders – who served as commercial intermediaries, and the Chinese traders at the “Parian.” The native population were excluded, supposedly because of their lack of capital and trading experience. TALLINN 2015 Moreover, less obvious than during the Spanish era but no less unjust, the natural resources of the Philippines were developed to support the commercial and industrial interests of the colonizer, this time the United States. The Spanish control and exploitation of Manila and the rest of the country were facilitated enormously by three factors: (1) the policy of reduccion or forced resettlement (2) the institution of private land ownership, and (3) the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. The offspring of these marriages – the Chinese mestizo – became the leading entrepreneurs during the period of economic development in the 19th century. Increased production of cash crops accelerated the concentration of ownership of agricultural estates in the hands of the select few who became the new landed gentry (the hacienderos). Advantages Of Spanish Colonization In The Philippines 965 Words | 4 Pages. Based in San Francisco, California, POSITIVELY FILIPINO magazine is your window on the Filipino diaspora. Report on Human Resource Management on Nestle Kabirwala Ltd. Bigger than the British, French, and Dutch East India Companies trade with Europe, it thrived for almost two and a half centuries. The Philippines was colonized by the Spanish for over 300 years – up until the end of the Spanish –American War in 1898. Cushner, Nicolas P. Spain in the Philippines: From Conquest to Revolution. Colonialism developed from imperialism, which can, Lulwa Al woqayyan The continued influx and prosperity of the Chinese was assured by the dependence of the Spaniards on their services. Disadvantages: They monopolized Philippine trade to themselves. The Americans introduced universal public education, the institutions of American democracy, modern amenities of urban living, and a system of popularly elected local officials; but they did little to alter the inequitable socio-economic structure that the Spaniards left behind. When the Americans took over the reins of colonial power, they maintained Manila as seat of government and center of economic activities. Manila’s rapid development and affluence during the 16th and 17th centuries depended totally on the prosperity of the Galleon Trade, forced labor, tribute tax, and forced purchase of agricultural products from other parts of the country to support the colonial bureaucracy based in Manila. Soon after annexation, a large insurrection began in the Philippines, which led to a bloody and costly war. Before the Spanish arrived, land ownership was largely communal and land use was based on usufruct rights. The Treaty of Paris bilked them of the dearest object of their rebellion.”. Manila remained the colonial capital under American rule. Tranvia and Autobos routes of the Manila Electric Railroad and Light Company in 1932. These needs determined to a large extent the pattern of land use and landholdings which were communal. Result of these are, we adapted their culture, traditions, and even their languages which we used until today. He returned to the Philippines in 2004 and has since been Principal Urban Planner of CONCEP Inc., a private consulting firm specializing in sustainable urban development and management. Positively Filipino LLC • 1813 El Camino Real, Suite 3 • Burlingame, CA 94010 • awesomeness@positivelyfilipino.com • (415) 894-5350, Filipino American National Historical Society (FANHS), Titchie Carandang-Tiongson and Erwin R. Tiongson, Positively Filipino | Online Magazine for Filipinos in the Diaspora. Historical records show that the rulers of the barangays in pre-colonial Manila seemed to have formed the nucleus of a trading and commercial community at the mouth of the Pasig River. What if some people are deprived of their right to education? Like the Spanish colonizers of 1571, American soldiers occupied Manila on August 13, 1898 and gradually established authority over the whole country. However, these changes came with a heavy price especially for the majority of Filipinos. Placed at the apex of colonial rule for almost 350 years by Spain and 45 years by the United States, Manila has been entrenched as Capital and hub of political, economic, cultural and religious transformation of Philippine society under the aegis of colonization. Spain claimed to have conquered the New World first with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, while the English … The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines. At the end of American rule, the Philippines remained a “one crop economy almost entirely dependent on the United States as market and supplier of manufactured goods.”. However, the rapid rise in Manila’s population resulted in slum dwellings as the cost of urban land and the cost of living increased. There was a comprehensive plan for slum clearance in Tondo in 1933, but a study found that only 40 percent of the slum dweller families had incomes that would enable them to buy or rent low-cost and most basic houses. As control over the Philippine affairs passed from the United States President to Congress, economic policies in the Philippines became dependent on the degree of Congressional support that vested American interests in agriculture, labor, commerce, and industry could muster. Perhaps, the most significant, far-reaching, and enduring instrument the Spaniards introduced that has altered Philippine economic and social structure is the institution of private land ownership. In fact, a major reason for the bitter mass resistance against the American forces was the betrayal of the Filipinos’ hopes for economic and social emancipation. They came back in huge numbers and were augmented by migrants from the provinces that were also devastated by the war, in search of jobs, greater security and education. But still, the meaning of colonialism and imperialism are debatable, Colonialism has influenced globalization, and in the key areas of economy and politics. Manila Bay and Intramuros,as visualized by the Spaniards in the mid-1800s. The parity clause of the Bell Trade Act provided that: “The disposition, development and utilization of all agricultural, timber, and mineral lands of the public domain, the waters, minerals coal, petroleum, and mineral resources of the Philippines, and the operations of public utilities, shall, if open to any person, be open to citizens of the United States and to all forms of business enterprise owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by United States citizens.”. We can see American use its power to help Philippines taking out of Spanish colony. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. It has 17 regions, 122 cities, and 42,025 barangays. Binondo Church, Tranvia over San Fernando Bridge, 1914. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1976. The Galleon Trade was the first and biggest monopolistic trade between Asia and the Americas. Spanish colonization of the Philippines brought the disadvantages of foreign diseases to the natives. The Hispanization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses, 1565 – 1700. It paved the way for global modernization. Student Teacher Class Date English VS. Spanish Colonization Although the English and Spanish both sought to sail across the Atlantic and explore to conquer the New World for their own unique reasons, the conditions and experiences they faced differed greatly. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Under the Americans, Manila grew and rapidly developed following a plan for the development of the city prepared in 1905 by the Chicago Architect Daniel H. Burnham. It's the third largest nation that speaks English in the world. Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught. For a long period of time, they were undisturbed following their traditions and living their life based on their cosmic worldview, but this all changed when the Europeans came to the Americas. The Spanish conquest ofthe Philippines in the 16th century is partofthe controversial "Columbian Reduccion greatly aided the organization of local government in the country. The influx of American officials, soldiers, teachers, and businessmen into the city led to the immediate construction and improvement of urban amenities. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. More articles from Nathaniel "Dinky" Von Einsiedel. Filipino leaders were divided in their reaction to the Bell Trade Act. The Americans coopted the traditional Filipino principalia into the colonial government based in Manila, perpetuating the latter’s social, economic and political domination of Philippine society. At first, the US was unselfish and worked to benefit the Philippines instead of America. Spanish. The rise of large land estates around Manila was stimulated by the increasing profitability of agricultural production because of the city’s expanding population. Answer (1 of 2): There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to colonization.Advantages of colonization Firstly, in the past, areas which have been colonized have been quite poor or underdeveloped. The much-heralded purchase by Governor William Howard Taft of friar lands in 1903, supposedly to be subdivided and sold to tenants of the estates, was not accompanied by a program of financial assistance to the peasants. 1 Better Health and Education. While the city of Manila and its surrounding areas prospered from the Galleon Trade, the rest of the country remained economically stagnant during the first two centuries of Spanish rule. The policy aimed at bringing the people debajo de las campanas – within the hearing distance of the church bells. Social unrest was fueled further by the abuses of colonial and religious authorities, and conflicts between and among the Insulares (Spaniards born in the Philippines), the mestizo class, and the Peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain who were regarded as elite). The country is divided into three main areas: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. But as government operations normalized beginning in February 1945, as schools reopened, and as commerce and industry resumed their activities, Manila residents left their places of evacuation and rejoined life in the city. 1. Second disadvantage is the unfair balance of power between the colony and colonizer. People often get confused between colonialism and imperialism; they are actually quite similar and the only difference is that imperialism focuses more on the culture and changing it. The McKinley Administration believed that the end of Spanish rule in the Philippines would stop imperialism, promote capitalism, and foster a desire for freedom. The Hispanization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses, 1565 – 1700. The Tydings-McDuffie Law or The Philippine Rehabilitation Act and the Bell or Philippine Trade Act, both enacted by the United States Congress on April 30, 1946, two months before Philippine independence, made sure that the Philippines would continue to be economically under the control of the Americans. Free trade with the United States not only perpetuated economic inequality, it also fostered the continued political dominance of the traditional landed and educated elite of Philippine society, a consequence with lasting significance for the government of the city of Manila. 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