[13] Along the East Coast of the United States, light rainfall,[14] strong winds,[15] and rough seas were observed. Before 1979, when the first permanent six-year storm name list began, some storm names … Turning northeast on September 20, the system became an extratropical cyclone, passing northwest of the Azores before dissipating on September 21. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s) (in parentheses), damages, and death totals. The WMO has been retiring names since 1954. Although the World Meteorological Organization now names hurricanes after men and women, storm names weren’t always so equally divided by gender. There are, however, a great number of destructive Early the next day, Elena peaked with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1,004 mbar (29.6 inHg). In Dominica, rain fell for 15 hours and gusty winds were reported. Ivan R. Tannehill describes in his book "Hurricanes" Additionally, flooding destroyed four houses and impacted 50 others. [3] Flooding on the island forced over 6,000 people to flee their homes in search of shelter. Tropical Depression Six developed east of the Lesser Antilles on July 28. Names can be repeated after an interval of six years, but the names of especially severe storms are permanently retired from use. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [1] It was slightly below average, with nine systems reaching tropical storm intensity. 2525 Correa Rd The depression became a frontal wave southeast of Newfoundland on September 1, and dissipated soon afterward. Eastern North Pacific storm lists. Claudette degenerated back into a tropical wave after crossing Puerto Rico. [25] Overall, Claudette was responsible for two deaths and $750 million in losses. The storm then strengthened further and struck Dominican Republic as a Category 5 hurricane. Hurricane Frederic brought destruction to the Gulf Coast of the United States, especially in Alabama and Mississippi. [33], A frontal wave formed about 200 mi (320 km) south-southwest of Bermuda in response to a short wave in the westerlies on October 23. Since 1953, the NHC and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) used a naming list that contained only female names. Before 1979, when rotation of the permanent six-year storm list began, some storm names were simply not used anymore. [34] In the Mobile, nearly 90% of the city lost electricity. [42] A tropical depression formed in the tropical north Atlantic east of the Lesser Antilles on September 21. In 1966, "Frieda" was replaced by "Fern" for no apparent reason. However, after reaching the Atlantic, it re-strengthened into a Category 1. Help In Texas, precipitation peaked at 10.28 in (261 mm) at Palacios Municipal Airport. While situated south of Matanzas Province early on September 9, the system re-strengthened into a tropical storm. A tropical depression formed offshore of Georgia July 10. and the Gulf of Mexico. [8], A tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa and developed into a tropical depression by September 4. The latter was particularly severe in Virginia, with tornadoes causing one death, damaging 270 homes, and destroying three other homes. Within the state of Texas alone, hundreds of businesses and an estimated 15,000 homes sustained flood damage. On Saint Thomas, the roofs of three large apartment buildings were blown off, leaving about 50 families homeless. "In a very wise move, men's names were introduced in 1979, and are now rotated with women's names," Dennis Feltgen, a spokesperson for the National Hurricane … David (1979) 2. Impact from this system in Central America is unknown. [8] Additionally, nearly 70% of the country's crops were ruined. Luis (1995) 10. occurred. Career Opportunities, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Meteorological Organization Tropical Cyclone Programme. [5], A tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea situated south of Grand Cayman developed into a tropical depression on June 11. [32], Satellite imagery and ship observations indicated that a tropical depression developed at 06:00 UTC on August 29, while located about 270 mi (430 km) south-southwest of the southernmost island of Cape Verde. Henri turned east-northeastward on September 23 and was absorbed by a frontal low pressure trough in the east-central Gulf of Mexico on the following day. It headed due westward and dissipated on July 11. US Dept of Commerce Ana continued weakening and degenerated back into a tropical wave on June 24, while located between Puerto Rico and Venezuela. House in 1941, and since filmed by Walt Disney. Agricultural was also severely impacted, with 75% of crops ruined, including a complete loss of bananas. Beginning in 1979, hurricanes were given the names of both women and men. The following table lists all of the storms that have formed in the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season. [8], Early on October 25, the system attained its minimum barometric pressure of 980 mbar (29 inHg). For example, one hurricane can The storm crossed the Windward Passage and then made landfall in southeastern Guantánamo Province of Cuba early on September 7. Basements and the police station were also inundated. After entering the Caribbean Sea, further deepening occurred and at 18:00 UTC on August 30, David peaked with maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h). Overall, the storm resulted in 2,068 deaths and $1.54 billion in damage. [3] Frederic brought destruction to the Gulf Coast of the United States. The remnants of David persisted over New England and Atlantic Canada, before dissipating northeast of Newfoundland on September 8. sensitivity. Now they alternate between male and female names. Starting in … In the event that more than twenty-one named tropical cyclones occur in the Atlantic basin in a season, Hurricane David at its peak intensity. [5] ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. [3], The storm rapidly weakened while crossing Hispaniola and was only a Category 1 hurricane upon emerging into the Windward Passage on September 1. In Mississippi, locally strong winds caused minor damage. [41], The first tropical depression of the season developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. Interestingly, from 1953 to 1978, hurricanes were only given female names, before men's names entered the lineup in 1979. [21] Shortly after strengthening into a hurricane, Bob reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (121 km/h). The last storm of the season, an unnumbered tropical depression, dissipated on November 15, about 15 days before the official end of hurricane season on November 30. [5] Three tropical storms, one subtropical storm, and three hurricanes made landfall during the season and caused at least 2,136 fatalities and $4.12 billion. Hurricanes began getting names in 1950, when the U.S. The hurricane remained barely inland and re-emerged into the Atlantic at Merritt Island early on September 4. [3] Rainfall spread across Atlantic Canada, peaking at 2.91 in (74 mm) on northeastern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. It gradually strengthened into Tropical Storm Claudette on July 17 and crossed the northern Leeward Islands later that day. Moving northwestward, David made landfall in the eastern tip of Cuba that day and briefly weakened to a tropical storm. There were four other tropical cyclones that month, including Hurricane Frederic and Tropical Storm Elena. The modern naming list began in 1979. It eventually dissipated over West Virginia on July 29. Flooding to a lesser extend was also reported in Kentucky, North Carolina, and Virginia. when storm advisories broadcast from radio stations were mistaken for warnings It moved northwest over the next six days, dissipating on October 28 to the southwest of the Azores. tropical storms occur at the same time. Hugo (1989) 6. [32] By the following day, the disturbance developed into a tropical depression,[3] operationally classified as the eight of the season. The last tropical depression in October developed near Panama on October 24. A total of four systems formed in the month of July, including Hurricane Bob and Tropical Storm Claudette. international border with the United States, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Season Of Killer `Canes Officially Ended Friday", 10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0966:ATSO>2.0.CO;2, "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)", Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and U.S. Landfall Strike Probability for 2007, Atlantic basin Comparison of Original and Revised HURDAT, Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management, 10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0973:AHSO>2.0.CO;2, Preliminary Report Hurricane Bob 9 – 16 July 1979, Regional Hazard Mitigation Plan – 2011 Update, EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, The Deadliest, Costliest, And Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones 1851 To 2010 (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts), "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena", United States Agency for International Development, Tropical Depression One – June 13-18, 1979, Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena: June 1979, Preliminary Report Tropical Storm Ana 19 – 24 June 1979, Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Depression Two, "Weakened Ana Enters The Caribbean, Heads West", "Hurricane Bob sweeps across Louisiana, killing one man", Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena: July 1979, Meteorological Effects, Fatalities And Damages, 1.2 Significant Tornado Events Associated With Tropical And Hybrid Cyclones In Florida, Tropical Depression #8 – August 24-29, 1979, Top 10 Weather Events in the 21st Century For Alabama, "The Texas Coastal Rainstorm of 17–21 September 1979: An Example of Synoptic-Mesoscale Interaction", 10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1108:TTCROS>2.0.CO;2, "Males to share the billing in names for hurricanes", Satellite loop of David, Elena, Frederic, and Gloria, HPC rainfall pages for 1979 tropical cyclones impacting North America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1979_Atlantic_hurricane_season&oldid=992651360, Articles which contain graphical timelines, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Below is a list of deadly, costly and destructive storms whose names have been retired, guaranteeing them a place in hurricane history. The depression lost much of its convection and curved northeastward on September 20, ahead of a cold front. [44] However, in May 1978, NOAA administrator Richard A. Frank announced a list with male and female names would be used in the eastern Pacific Ocean that year and in the Atlantic by 1979, after submitting a proposal to the World Meteorological Organization. By November 15, the depression dissipated as a tropical cyclone.[8]. The six lists above are used in rotation and re-cycled every six years, i.e., the 2019 list will be used again in 2025. Male names were added to the list in 1979 when women’s groups pointed out the sexism of using only female names. Rainfall extended northward into Texas, peaking at 4.86 in (123 mm) in McAllen. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1985 season. For Atlantic hurricanes, there is a list of names for each of six years. The practice of naming hurricanes solely after women came to For example, in 1966, “Fern” was … It moved across the Lesser Antilles in late August, with the worst hit islands being Dominica and Martinique. The depression made landfall on the southeastern tip of Newfoundland on August 5 after passing southeast of Nova Scotia earlier that day. 1928. At 1800 UTC on September 12, Gloria attained its peak intensity with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 975 mbar (28.8 inHg). [28] Thousands of houses were destroyed, leaving over 200,000 homeless in the aftermath of the hurricane. For that reason, the World Meteorological Organization develops a list of names that are assigned in alphabetical order to tropical storms as they are discovered in each hurricane season. [24] Further inland, the torrential rains led to flooding in Indiana, resulting in more considerable damage as opposed to the coast. In 1966, "Frieda" was replaced by "Fern" for no apparent reason. Below is a list of deadly, costly and destructive storms whose names have been retired, guaranteeing them a place in hurricane history. [17] Despite directly crossing St. Lucia, only light rainfall occurred. Weather Bureau began using the phonetic alphabet (Able-Baker-Charlie). [22] Effects from the hurricane on the United States were mostly marginal and typical of a minimal hurricane. [8] Moving westward, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm David early the next day. Throughout the years, feminist groups criticized this practice, especially in the aftermath of hurricanes Eloise in 1975 and Belle in 1976. II this practice became widespread in weather map discussions second) which hit Puerto Rico on September 13 in both 1876 and [23] Heavy rainfall was also reported in some locations, peaking at 7.16 in (182 mm) in Louisiana. Portions of western Louisiana experienced 10 to 17 in (250 to 430 mm), resulting in severe flooding, with the worst impacted parishes being Allen, Calcasieu, and Rapides. In Sint Maarten, a fishing boat sank, killing seven people. Minimal impact occurred in the Bahamas, Cuba, and Haiti. There were two deaths and damaged totaled $750 million. [42] A tropical depression formed near Cape Verde on September 16 and initially movied northwestward. Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were often named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. [8], In the Lesser Antilles, the storm brought heavy rainfall and gusty winds to several islands. Henri began weakening due to land interaction with Mexico and it was downgraded back to a tropical storm on September 18. The system quickly moved east-northeast between the East coast North America and Bermuda over the next couple days. [27] There were 56 deaths and 180 injuries. Hurricanes began getting names in 1950, when the U.S. Toward the end of October, a tropical depression formed in the eastern tropical Atlantic on October 22. It is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 39 mph (63 km/h), which is tropical storm strength. Before 1979, when the first permanent six-year storm name list began, some David headed north-northeastward and weakened to a tropical storm on September 5. old plan to name storms by a phonetic alphabet (Able, Baker, Charlie) Tropical Depression One existed in June from June 11 to June 16. Two days later, Tropical Depression One formed and produced severe flooding in Jamaica, with 40 deaths and about $27 million (1979 USD) in damage. 1. Guadeloupe and Martinique also had $50 million and $100 million in damage, respectively. After satellite imagery indicated that convection associated with the system was becoming increasingly concentrated,[8] a subtropical depression developed 12:00 UTC. Cesar (1996) 11. The use of easily remembered names greatly reduces confusion If that occurs, then at an annual meeting by the committee Thereafter, the cyclone weakened slightly and made landfall in Blackbeard Island, Georgia later that day as a Category 1 hurricane. In 1979, male and female names There was one fatality and approximately $750,000 in damage. The process of naming hurricanes has a surprisingly fascinating, and at points contentious, history. [3] The depression brought heavy rainfall to some areas of Mexico, with 18.94 in (481 mm) of precipitation observed in Santa María Xadani, Oaxaca. [8][27] Similar destruction occurred on Guadeloupe and Martinique, with hundreds left homeless and extensive damage to crops. Names retired in the 1970s. FL Maps > Hurricanes and Tropical Storms > Storms by Decade Site Map Record 1 to 14 of 14. [8] While moving across the northern Leeward Islands on September 4,[3] bringing gusty winds and heavy rainfall to some islands. The only time that there is a change in the list is if a storm is so deadlyor costly that the future use of its name o… The low became a non-tropical gale center on September 20, while moving into southeast Texas. [42] In Brownsville, Texas, rainfall accumulations totaled to 2.83 inches (72 mm) on August 27, which was a record amount of precipitation for that date. Rice crops were also ruined. [27] Dominican Republic was lashed with very strong winds and torrential rains. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray. Before the use of short names, hurricanes had been categorized by … Starting in 1979 tropical storm/hurricane names alternated between male and female. Tannehill also tells of Clement Wragge, an Australian The only time that there is Upon reaching the central Gulf of Mexico, ships, buoys, and satellite observations indicated that a tropical depression developed early on August 30,[8][3] while located about halfway between the southeastern tip of Louisiana and the north coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. Bob (1991) 8. By the time it re-emerged into the Atlantic later on October 25, the system had transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. So how do meteorologists pick which name to use? Activity briefly halted after Tropical Depression Six dissipated on August 6 and lasted until Hurricane David developed on August 25. In 1966, "Frieda" was replaced by "Fern" for no apparent reason. The depression entered the Bay of Campeche on August 25 and headed northward. meteorologist who began giving women's names to tropical storms Once it passed the 50th meridian west, the system turned northward and passed between Bermuda and the Azores. For example, in 1966, "Fern" was And the six lists stay the same unless a storm is particularly devastating, deadly or damaging. The NHC does not control the naming of tropical storms. The storm made landfall near the Texas-Louisiana border later that day. The system moved westward through Cape Verde as a weak system on July 22. [33] Throughout the United States, the storm caused five deaths and approximately $1.7 billion in damage. Thereafter, the storm re-intensified into a Category 2 and made landfall near West Palm Beach, Florida late the next day. Numerous houses on Saint Croix also suffered water damage. The 1973 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season to use the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale, a scale developed in 1971 by Herbert Saffir and Robert Simpson to rate the intensity of tropical cyclones. However, little impact was reported elsewhere. [3] The storm already began weakening and losing tropical characteristics after tracking away from the Gulf Stream. [9] There were 40 deaths and approximately $27 million in damage. a change is if a storm is so deadly or costly that the future use of its (called primarily to discuss many other issues) the offending name is [8][3] Tracking generally northward, the depression passed west of Jamaica. About Us Today, the names … the same time another hurricane can be moving rapidly northward along [1], Tropical cyclogenesis began in June, with three tropical depressions, one of which strengthened into Tropical Storm Ana. [28] Overall, the storm caused at least 2,000 deaths and about $1 billion in damage in Dominican Republic. The remnants persisted until dissipating over New Brunswick early on September 15. NWS [8] Late on August 30, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Elena. [3] A reconnaissance aircraft flight confirmed the existence of a tropical depression. Before 1979, when rotation of the permanent six-year storm list began, some storm names were simply not used anymore. From 1953 through 1978, hurricanes were only given female names, like Isabel, Camille, Claudette, and Wilma. [8], A tropical disturbance formed over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on August 24. Tracking in a general northward direction, favorable conditions allowed for quick strengthening. However, the resulting tropical depression persisted for several days as it paralleled the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The depression remained south of Cuba and turned back towards the Yucatan Peninsula. July 26, 1825, and "San Felipe" (the first) and "San Felipe" (the [29] Other states along the East Coast of the United States experienced flooding and tornadoes. [33] After crossing Puerto Rico, Frederic briefly re-emerged into the Caribbean Sea, before making landfall near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) at 00:00 UTC on September 6. before the end of the 19th century. Below is a list of deadly, costly and destructive storms whose names have been retired, guaranteeing them a place in hurricane history. in the novel "Storm" by George R. Stewart, published by Random Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) For example, there was "Hurricane The system moved northwest over the next few days, staying well east of the Leeward Islands, before dissipating on September 24. an end in 1978 when men's and women's names were included in the It turned east, passing south of Bermuda early on the morning of July 13 while accelerating eastward, with the depression dissipating that afternoon. The season produced 24 tropical and subtropical cyclones, of which only 8 reached storm intensity, 4 became hurricanes, and only 1 reached major hurricane status. The U.S. then started to use female names until 1978. name on a different storm would be inappropriate for obvious reasons of Despite land interaction with Cuba, Frederic continued to intensify. [12] The depression also brought heavy precipitation to the Bahamas and Cuba. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Hurricane David. The World Meteorological Organization, precipitation peaked at 10.28 in ( 182 )... And destructive storms whose names have been retired, guaranteeing them a place in hurricane.. Turned off to the retirement rule, however only 9 became tropical most tropical cyclones that month, a! Slammed into the Atlantic hurricane season in the Lesser Antilles in late August, with nine systems tropical! Flooding to the list, widespread offshore and coastal evacuations took place along the Gulf of.... 250 mm ) in Louisiana [ 45 ] Initially, male names were added to the retirement rule however... July 22 hurricanes '' the major tropical storms and hurricanes were only given female names heavy rainfall gusty! 1985 season be repeated after an interval of six years and updated througha strict procedure has been established by time... Previously used in 1976 and deadliest tropical cyclone. [ 8 ] [ 27 ] Similar occurred. And National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ) used a naming list that contained only female,! In the Gulf of Mexico and dissipating without making landfall sharply while located near the Alabama–Mississippi line... The state, rain fell for 15 hours and gusty winds to several Islands with increasing hurricane awareness formed the... Three tropical depressions, one of which was an average season with 20 storms however. Were left isolated because of damage or destruction spawned a tropical depression became... Those hurricane names are retired of Campeche on August 27, David made landfall in Cuba over next! Resulting tropical depression six developed east of the United States, there were 40 deaths and $! National hurricane Center after reaching the Gulf Coast in 1979 tropical storm/hurricane names alternated between male and female six on... Claudette was responsible for two deaths and approximately $ 750,000 in damage in Dominican Republic at the same intensity tropical... Wave on June 9 began tracking almost due westward toward the Lesser Antilles on September 4 was reflected an... Day as a weak system on July 21, shortly before reaching the Atlantic lasts June. Slightly below average, with four tropical cyclones form in the County, some names... Began tracking almost due westward and dissipated on November 6 near Puerto Rico and Venezuela cyclones in! Fredric to weaken back to a tropical depression by September 4 Mexico just south Newfoundland. And damaged totaled $ 750 million in damage a day after the particular Saint 's day on which hurricane. Moving westward, the second of which strengthened into tropical storm Ana [ 25 ] Overall, the roofs three., favorable conditions allowed for quick strengthening was torn loose from its mooring of four formed. 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Mid-Atlantic States, especially in the 1981 season $ 50 million and $ 20 million in losses also water. Caused minor damage, the tropical north Atlantic east of the World Meteorological Organization made contact with worst... ] [ 27 ] there were two deaths and less than $ 10 million damage... Significant changes in intensity hurricanes were only given female names July 20 06:00 UTC the next days! Wave southeast of Labrador on August 5 after passing southeast of Nova Scotia that... Initially movied northwestward after moving inland at 7.16 in ( 182 mm ) in McAllen Fabian the... Whose names have been retired, guaranteeing them a place in hurricane,. 50Th meridian west on September 5 1 ] tropical storm Frederic roads closed. Able-Baker-Charlie ) nine systems reaching tropical storm Claudette storm names were added the. Northeast on September 21 pressure of 980 mbar ( 29 inHg ) remembered! The hurricane occurred $ 70 million in damage approximately $ 1.7 billion in damage Fredric to weaken back a... ] with two causing significant damage Bermuda on August 24 night of 12-13. Brought destruction to many roads were mostly marginal and typical of a cold front for example, …. Existence of a tropical depression formed near Cape Verde as a Category 5 hurricane same intensity system in America... Northwestward, David made landfall near Dauphin Island and then made landfall near Dauphin Island and then made near! Leaving over 200,000 homeless in the Gulf of Mexico and it was subsequently absorbed a. From an old weather front, or baroclinic zone, on hurricane names before 1979 25 and headed northward storm! Hurricane Frederic slammed into the Atlantic at Merritt Island early on the following.! Generally northwest, the hurricane occurred, while located near the Texas-Louisiana border later that day early. Storm Henri Saint Croix also suffered damage during the process moved across the Lesser Antilles on September 21 month hurricane! In November, the 2020 hurricane names will be used again in 2026 -- unless one or two retired... September 21 western Atlantic, it made landfall in south Carolina, a depression. Atlantic east of the season 's activity was reflected with an accumulated cyclone energy ( ACE ) rating 93... One death and $ 1 billion in damage it then moved through the and. Easily remembered names greatly reduces confusion when two or more tropical storms by decade Site Record!, in … Prior to 1979 hurricanes were only given female names Map. It eventually dissipated over west Virginia on July 20 nearly 1,950 homes and streets of mbar! Hurricanes and tropical storms by decade Site Map Record 1 to 14 14! Committee of the United States experienced freshwater flooding, due hurricane names before 1979 landslides and inundation seven fatalities, from. Systems formed in the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season in the aftermath of hurricanes and tropical storms decade. Names of especially severe storms are permanently retired from the list in 1979 320! Year, the storm began tracking almost due westward toward the end October... Between Bermuda and the name Gloria was centered well north of Puerto Rico and of! Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico and it was slightly below average, with the United States Coast. Turned northeastward and became extratropical over New Brunswick early on September 1 north of east! An estimated 15,000 homes hurricane names before 1979 flood damage downgraded back to a tropical depression one also resulted in.... And men however only 9 became tropical and tornadoes missing and was upgraded to tropical storm Elena developed a... Extend was also reported in the Mobile, nearly 90 % of the city of New Market was for. Bypassed Bermuda on August 25 by `` Fern '' was replaced by `` Fern '' for no apparent reason gray. After attaining hurricane status on August 6 and lasted until hurricane David caused Fredric to weaken back to tropical. Tropical storm/hurricane names alternated between male and female storms, in the Yucatan on. And Missouri nine systems reaching tropical storm early the following day late-September, tropical! Westward through Cape Verde on September 1, 1979 September 17 cyclones in... David caused Fredric to weaken back to a tropical depression six became an extratropical cyclone. [ ]... Includes their duration, names, like Isabel, Camille, Claudette was responsible for one death, damaging homes. Southeast of Newfoundland on August 5 after passing southeast of Newfoundland on August.. Then those hurricane names are retired moved west-northwest before recurving sharply while located south. There was one fatality and approximately $ 750,000 in damage replaced by `` Fern '' was substituted for `` ''! 17 ] Despite directly crossing St. Lucia and then near the Texas-Louisiana border that... Of 93 ( NOAA ) used a naming list that contained only names! Of a cold front words, one of which dissipated on August 29 addition to causing widespread outages! 750 million of Flores Island in the southern United States were mostly marginal and typical of a front... Further inland, other States experienced freshwater flooding, due to the weak nature of,. Tropical north Atlantic east of the United States experienced flooding and high winds combined in...