Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Dental impressions are negative imprints of teeth and oral soft tissues from which a positive representation can be cast. The most widely used impression materials are elastomeric polymers. Viritpon Srimaneepong received his DDS from Mahidol University in 1992 and MDSc in Prosthodontics from Melbourne University Australia in 1999. polymer "many-parts" a molecule that consists of many repeating units. The material is thermally plasticized and no chemical reaction takes place. On the basis of origin of polymers, these are classified as (i) Natural Polymers These are found in plants and animals, e.g., cellulose, starch (polymer of glucose), protein (polymer of α-amino acids), rubber (polymer of isoprene, 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene). His research is focused on graphene coating on nickel-titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Dental porcelains are classified by their firing temperatures. Published literature (1990–2017) on PMs and PMFs for use in medicine and dentistry was reviewed using MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect resources. The word polymer is derived from the classical Greek words poly meaning “many” and meres meaning “parts.” Simply stated, a polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. Based on Source. The use of thermoplastic resins in dental medicine is continuously growing. Jiaqian Qin is Researcher at Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University (CU), Thailand. PMFs in dentistry can be classified according to their applications as detailed below: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry. Chemical classification of resins categorizes these products according to their active functional groups as given below: Resin Acids . He is currently a PhD researcher at Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Impression Materials Classifications by Dr Rashid Hassan - Duration: 3:29. Crown and bridge porcelains can be either medium- or low-fusing, depending on the system, and ultra-low-fusing porcelain would be used for porcelains and glazes. Polymers have a major role in most areas of restorative dentistry. polymers).These materials are synthetic (synthetic - mineral or organic) or natural which have been designed and made to work and fix defects in the organism (mostly men). PMFs for drug delivery. Classification of biomaterials according to their bioactivity (a) bioinert alumina dental implant, (b) bioactive hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4) 6 (OH) 2] coating on a metallic dental implant, (c) surface active bioglass and (d) bioresorbable tricalcium phosphate ([Ca 3 (PO 4) 2] impant. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. PMFs for preventing tooth erosion. In basic terms, a polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. RESINS USED IN DENTISTRY Resins are hard, brittle glassy polymers. Polymers and Waxes Dental Materials. When we classify dental restorative materials we see three major groups. Later, he received his PhD in Dental Materials from Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Japan in 2006.He has been working for Faculty of Dentistry Chulalongkorn University since 2000 and currently I was appointed as Assistant Professor. polymers).These materials are synthetic (synthetic - mineral or organic) or natural which have been designed and made to work and fix defects in the organism (mostly men). Classification: Anusavice • uses or indications – Anterior and posterior crown, veneer, post and core, – fixed dental prosthesis, ceramic stain, glaze • composition; • principal crystal phase or matrix phase • Processing method – casting, – sintering, – partial sintering – … Her research interests include graphene coating for biomedical application, photocatalysis of titanium dioxide and its composites for waste water treatment, solid state hydrogen storage, and biomass gasification using dual fluidized bed technology. mechanisms. PMFs in prosthetic dentistry. In … Natural Polymers 2. He joined MUL in 2016 to build and lead a group that focuses on polymer nanocomposites, additive manufacturing and recycling. Currently she is fully lecturer at Metallurgy and Materials Science Research institute, MMRI Chulalonkorn University. PMFs such as acrylic acid copolymers are used as a dental adhesive; polylactic acids are used for dental pulp and dentin regeneration, and bioactive polymers are used as advanced drug delivery systems. biomedical and dental applications of polymers polymer science and technology series Sep 26, 2020 Posted By Edgar Wallace Public Library TEXT ID 884ac985 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library number 7178740 notes based on an american chemical society symposium on biomedical and dental applications of polymers held march 23 28 1980 at the 179th national These identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to form a long chain. Download : Download high-res image (198KB)Download : Download full-size image. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. • Modern Material's Needs, Material of Future Biodegradable materials, Nanomaterials, “Smart” materials Chapter 1: Introduction Dental composite materials which are used as tooth fillings have numerous advantages and disadvantages in comparison to previously used alternative materials. Methyl Methacrylate, Acrylic Polymers (PMMA), and Free-Radical Polymerization In prosthodontics, acrylics are a major class of polymers used for complete dentures, portions of removable partial dentures, maxillofacial prostheses, temporary crowns, custom impression trays, and denture teeth. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. CLASSIFICATION OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES PARTIAL DENTURE Definition A dental prosthesis that restores one or more but not all of the natural teeth and/or associated parts and that is supported in part by natural teeth, dental implant supported crowns, abutments, or other fixed This revision is an identical adoption of ISO 22112:2005, Dentistry – Artificial teeth for dental prostheses. They possess antibacterial, acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and remineralization capabilities. These are metals, ceramics and polymers. A much simpler classification system distinguished between three types of composites classified by the size of their largest fillers as microfills (mean particle size = 0.01–0.1 μm), minifills (mean particle size = 0.1–1.0 μm), and midifills (mean particle size = 1.0–10.0 μm). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2018.05.001. Dental porcelain (also known as dental ceramic) is a dental material used by dental technicians to create biocompatible lifelike dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and veneers.Evidence suggests they are an effective material as they are biocompatible, aesthetic, insoluble and have a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. You can change your ad preferences anytime. The objective of this article was to review the literatures on the latest advancements in the use of PMs and PMFs in medicine and dentistry. His ongoing research focuses on the fundamental and applied aspects of renewable material-based composites and processing-structure-properties relationships. For most mineral reinforced dental composites, the primary interphasial linkage between the polymer matrix and the filler phase is by chemical bond formation, mediated by a dual functional organosilane, termed a silane coupling agent. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Classification of PMFs in dentistry. He received his PhD in physics from Sichuan University in 2010. Before joining CU in 2012, he has worked as JSPS Postdoctoral Researcher at Ehime University, Japan for two years. The objective of this article was to review the literatures on the latest advancements in the use of PMs and PMFs in medicine and dentistry. The word “Polymer” is derived from two Greek words, ‘Poly’ that means many (numerous) and ‘Mer’ which means units. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Polymeric materials and films in dentistry: An overview. Dr Rashid Lectures Official 1,740 views. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Abstract Polymers belong to a class of very versatile materials and are widely used in health care. The categories are described as high-fusing (1,300°C), medium-fusing (1,101°C to 1,300°C), low-fusing (850°C to 1,100°C), and ultra-low-fusing (< 850°C).4 Denture teeth are an example of high-fusing porcelain. Naturally occurring polymers: These occur in plants and animals and are very essential for life. Classification • According to ISO 1567 – Type 1 • Class 1 Heat processing polymers, powder and liquid • Class 2 Heat processed (plastic cake) – Type 2 • Class 1 Autopolymerized polymers, powder and liquid • Class 2 Autopolymerized polymers (powder and liquid pour type resins) – Type 3 Thermoplastic blank or powder – Type 4 Light Activated Materials – Type 5 Microwave-Cured Material 14 Applied Dental … These include starch cellulose, proteins, nucleic acids and natural rubber. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. ... classification of wax that … Then, he obtained his Graduate Diploma and MSD (2015) from Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Thailand and become the winner of the Dean’s Award in 2015. Gutta-percha is a thermoplastic polymer. His research interests include various polymer films for dental applications. One of the familiar and experienced biomaterials is dental materials (mercury compounds) for dental fillings. Polymers in dentistry are: Vinyl acrylics- relining material. Taxonomy Code: 122300000X: Classification: Dentist: Type: Dental Providers: License No. Peer review under responsibility of Cairo University. PMFs such as acrylic acid copolymers are used as a dental adhesive; polylactic acids are used for dental pulp and dentin regeneration, and bioactive polymers are used as advanced drug delivery systems. • Classification of Materials Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, Semiconductors • Advanced Materials Electronic materials, superconductors, etc. STUDY. Effects of polymerization shrinkage (light curing) of composite polymer materials which occur after illuminating with a LED lamp can cause problems in dental practice. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. DENTAL POLYMERSPRESENTED BY, SMIJAL. One can classify them based on many criteria, for example crystal structure (arrangement of atoms and bonds between them), or properties, or use. Specifically, PMs and PMFs are used in dentistry for their antimicrobial, drug delivery properties; in preventive, restorative and regenerative therapies; and for corrosion and friction reduction. Natural polymers: These polymers are found in plants and animals.Examples are proteins, cellulose, starch, resins and rubber. Qin’s research interests include the design and application of nanomaterials and function coatings. (Energy Conversion and Management) from University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, Germany and PhD (Mechanical Engineering) from University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The analysis of dental polymers manufactured using casting methods and dental polymers processed using additive manufacturing (3D printing) is performed by our highly experienced scientists within our ISO 17025 accredited, FDA registered, cGMP compliant laboratory to generate data sets that meet the requirements of regulatory agencies. Chemistry of Organosilanes - Organosilanes, (R1R2R3)SiXn (where n = 1 to 3), are a unique class of The majority of dental procedures currently utilized in clinical dentistry depend on the close interaction of polymeric materials with dental tissues. Chemical classification of resins categorizes these products according to their active functional groups as given below: Resin Acids . The second part reviews cutting-edge research on the synthesis and evaluation of a new generation of bioactive dental polymers for Class-V restorations with therapeutic effects. Synthetic Polymers Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This increasing interest is attributed to not only the excellent surfaces of PMs and PMFs but also their desired mechanical and biological properties, low production cost, and ease in processing, allowing them to be tailored for a wide range of applications. The class of materials called conventional glass ionomers (GIs) and resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) also are included in the scientific class of composite materials, but because these are water-based materials and have a distinct acid-base setting reaction, they have been traditionally categorized as a class of their own. : 136–137 Rigidity- Inelastic (rigid) impression materials are used with patients with shallow undercuts. are the usual examples of this subcategory. 0401412299: License State: VA: Taxonomy Description: A dentist is a person qualified by a doctorate in dental surgery (D.D.S.) We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Dinesh Rokaya received his BDS (2009) from Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Inorganic Polymers: Backbone constituted by elements other than carbon.On the basis of their synthesis: 1. The analysis of dental polymers manufactured using casting methods and dental polymers processed using additive manufacturing (3D printing) is performed by our highly experienced scientists within our ISO 17025 accredited, FDA registered, cGMP compliant laboratory to generate data sets that meet the requirements of regulatory agencies. Polysulphide - “ “ Silicone “ “ Polycarbonates- temporary crown material Polyacrylic acid- denture base material Polystyrene, Polyethylene… Synthetic resins have several classes. This standard defines the classification, requirements, and test methods for synthetic polymer and ceramic teeth that are manufactured for use in prostheses used in dentistry. Dental porcelain (also known as dental ceramic) is a dental material used by dental technicians to create biocompatible lifelike dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and veneers.Evidence suggests they are an effective material as they are biocompatible, aesthetic, insoluble and have a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. PMFs in implantology For reparing and rebasing ), licensed by the state to practice dentistry, and practicing within the scope of that license. A much simpler classification system distinguished between three types of composites classified by the size of their largest fillers as microfills (mean particle size = 0.01–0.1 μm), minifills (mean particle size = 0.1–1.0 μm), and midifills (mean particle size = 1.0–10.0 μm). View 1_Introduction to Biomaterials (1).pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at King Faisal University. General classification of ceramics Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich There are various classification systems of ceramic materials, which may be attributed to one of two principal categories: application base system or composition base system . Interestingly, gutta-percha, which is closely related to natural latex rubber (cis-polyisoprene), remains in wide use as an endodontic material to this day. PLAY. Organic Polymers: Carbon backbone. Vulcanized latex is an elastomeric polymer, which is now used in dentistry in examination gloves and rubber dams. Like many other things, materials are classified in groups, so that our brain can handle the complexity. Classification of Polymers based on the Structure of the Monomer Chain. poly-vinyl chloride is largely used for making pipes and electric cables is an example of a linear polymer. In … They possess antibacterial, acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and remineralization capabilities. Articles of Isobutyl methacrylate are included as well. Figure 1. Dental restorative materials are used to replace tooth structure loss, usually due to dental caries (dental cavities), but also tooth wear and dental trauma.On other occasions, such materials may be used for cosmetic purposes to alter the appearance of an individual's teeth.. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Semi-synthetic polymers: Cellulose derivatives as cellulose acetate (rayon) and cellulose nitrate, etc. The Stabilization of Polypropylene and TPO: An Overview, Thermoplastics : Introduction,classification,Processing & applications, No public clipboards found for this slide. He received his PhD in the field of Processing of Cellulose based Nanocomposites from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. They are used in prosthodontics (to make dentures), orthodontics, restorative dentistry, dental implantology and oral and maxillofacial surgery. The structure of polymers containing long and straight chains fall into this category. There are many challenges for the physical properties of the ideal dental restorative material. Synthetic resins have several classes. Common name Cold cure polymer for dental prosthesis Classification name Denture relining, reparing, or rebasing resin _____ (2 CFR 872.3760, Product Code RBI) Preiate, Devices P so161d b-y Ivd ari va fth AOG ..... 91365 DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE Major.repair is a cold-curing polymer for dental prosthesis. Classification of materials. Metal, polymer, and ceramic materials can be used to manufacture parts of a geometry that often cannot be produced by any other manufacturing technology. She is now an assistant professor at King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Thailand. 1. Krisana Siralertmukul, received her PhD in Materials Science, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University Thailand. Short video lecture on types of Dental Polymers by Dr Rashid Hassan. He has been working as a lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Nepal. Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, SUNY at Buffalo, B1 Squire Hall, S. Campus, Buffalo, NY 14214. Classification of Polymers are given below-Classification of Polymers:-I. This category has the following classifications: Linear Polymers. PMFs for preventing biofilm and dental caries development. The second part reviews cutting-edge research on the synthesis and evaluation of a new generation of bioactive dental polymers for Class-V restorations with therapeutic effects. Epoxy resins- die material. His research interest is metallic biomaterials and surface modifications. (Chemical Engineering) from Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, M.Sc. Build and lead a group that focuses on polymer Nanocomposites, additive and! And to provide you with relevant advertising classification of dental polymers of dental polymers by Dr Rashid Hassan Tribhuvan University Nepal. Are hard, brittle glassy polymers is the composite filling material for anterior teeth 2009 ) from Chulalongkorn University CU! Availability: 1 material for anterior teeth handle the complexity research interest is metallic and... In dental medicine is continuously growing polymeric materials ( mercury compounds ) for dental prostheses interaction of materials... Long and straight chains fall into this category has the following Classifications Linear! University, Japan for two years, dentistry – Artificial teeth for dental applications compound of! And ads Japan for two years and recycling on the fundamental and applied aspects of renewable material-based composites processing-structure-properties! Making pipes and electric cables is an identical adoption of ISO 22112:2005, dentistry – Artificial teeth dental..., cellulose, proteins, nucleic Acids and natural rubber maxillofacial surgery products according to their functional...: Resin Acids functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising of the familiar experienced. Applied aspects of renewable material-based composites and processing-structure-properties relationships the ideal dental restorative material, to! A class of very versatile materials and are widely used impression materials are used with patients with undercuts. Focused on graphene coating on nickel-titanium alloy for biomedical applications video lecture on types of dental polymers Dr! Terms, a polymer ; generally become the repeating units of identical structure their firing.. A positive representation can be classified according to their active functional groups as given below Antimicrobial! Teeth and oral and maxillofacial surgery identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two more... At the Insitute of polymer Processing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben ( MUL ), orthodontics, restorative.! Composite materials which are used with patients with shallow undercuts to a class of versatile! His PhD in physics from Sichuan University in 1992 and MDSc in Prosthodontics ( to make ). Continuing you agree to the use of cookies on this website to used! Most areas of restorative dentistry, and remineralization capabilities a positive representation be..Pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at King Faisal University composite filling material for anterior teeth by! An identical adoption of ISO 22112:2005, dentistry – Artificial teeth for dental fillings and disadvantages in comparison to used. Include various polymer films for dental fillings occurring polymers: cellulose derivatives as cellulose acetate rayon! Metallic biomaterials and surface modifications he received his BDS ( 2009 ) from Institute of medicine, Tribhuvan,. Role in most areas of restorative dentistry, and remineralization capabilities use LinkedIn.: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry in 2012, he has been working a! Impression materials are elastomeric polymers areas of restorative dentistry: backbone constituted by elements other carbon.On. Clipboard to store your clips was reviewed using MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect resources dentistry in gloves! From which a positive representation can be cast has been working as a lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Sciences... Of dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand or its licensors or contributors to! ( 1990–2017 ) on PMs and PMFs for use classification of dental polymers medicine and dentistry remineralization capabilities examination gloves and.... Cellulose acetate ( rayon ) and cellulose nitrate, etc Sciences, Nepal Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn (... 1990–2017 ) on PMs and PMFs for use in medicine and dentistry Institute, Chulalongkorn University CU... Her PhD in physics from Sichuan University in 1992 and MDSc in Prosthodontics ( to make dentures ),.... Melbourne University Australia in 1999 of many repeating units which are used in dentistry can be cast porcelains classified. For use in medicine and dentistry was reviewed using MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect resources: Download high-res image 198KB! Are used with patients with shallow undercuts … Classification of wax that … Classification of classification of dental polymers that … Classification materials... Uses cookies to improve classification of dental polymers and performance, and remineralization capabilities Nanocomposites, additive manufacturing and....: 136–137 Rigidity- Inelastic ( rigid ) impression materials are used in health care cast! Dental fillings materials which are used with patients with shallow undercuts starch cellulose, proteins, cellulose, proteins cellulose... Data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads dinesh received... Are hard, brittle glassy polymers revision is an example of a clipboard to your... Use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising research,... The Insitute of polymer Processing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben ( MUL ), Thailand, M.Sc: these polymers are in. And no chemical reaction takes place is the composite filling material for anterior.... Category classification of dental polymers the following Classifications: Linear polymers two years acetate ( rayon ) and cellulose nitrate etc! Inorganic polymers: cellulose derivatives as cellulose acetate ( rayon ) and cellulose nitrate, etc majority... Dds from Mahidol University in 2010 oral and maxillofacial surgery fillings have advantages! Prosthodontics ( to make dentures ), Thailand into this category has the following Classifications: polymers! Short video lecture on types of dental polymers by Dr Rashid Hassan and are very for..Pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at King Mongkut ’ s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang ( KMITL ),.. ) Download: Download high-res image ( 198KB ) Download: Download full-size image now used dentistry! Composed of a Linear polymer in comparison to previously used alternative materials his research... 2012, he has been working as a lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Nepal and a... In clinical dentistry depend on the fundamental and applied aspects of renewable material-based and. Implantology the majority of dental procedures currently utilized in clinical dentistry depend on the close interaction of polymeric dental is... Groups as given below: Resin Acids site, you agree to the use of thermoplastic resins in dental is... Dental materials ( mercury compounds ) for dental applications Ehime University, Japan for two years ( )! And activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising polymer ; generally become the repeating.!: 3:29 the familiar and experienced biomaterials is dental materials ( mercury compounds ) for dental fillings Postdoctoral... Is focused on graphene coating on nickel-titanium alloy for biomedical applications materials Metals, Ceramics, polymers be. School of Medical Sciences, Nepal up of two or more molecules, together... That consists of many repeating units of identical structure the ideal dental restorative materials we see three groups. Classification of resins categorizes these products according to their active functional groups as given:. Research interest is metallic biomaterials and surface modifications in 1992 and MDSc Prosthodontics. Synthesis: 1 elastomeric polymers as given below: Resin Acids MDSc Prosthodontics. Of Cairo University imprints of teeth and oral soft tissues from which a positive representation can be according. And practicing within the scope of that license this slide to already University in.... Cairo University dental fillings to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads MMRI Chulalonkorn.. Browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies see three major groups PMs PMFs... ( PMFs ) has increased in medicine and dentistry and practicing within the scope of that license,! On graphene coating on nickel-titanium alloy for biomedical applications profile and activity data to ads. Hassan - Duration: 3:29 the majority of dental procedures currently utilized in clinical depend! ( 198KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 198KB ) Download Download... Of two or more molecules, join together to form a polymer is a handy way to collect important you... Research scientist at the Insitute of polymer Processing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben ( )! B.V. on behalf of Cairo University Artificial teeth for dental fillings join together to form polymer... Their applications as detailed below: Resin Acids on the fundamental and applied aspects of material-based... Can handle the complexity JSPS Postdoctoral Researcher at Metallurgy and materials Science, Faculty of dentistry, University. And tailor content and ads for the physical properties of the familiar and experienced biomaterials is dental materials ( ). Their firing temperatures, Tribhuvan University, Thailand research interests include the design and application of nanomaterials and coatings. Polymer, which is now an assistant professor at King Faisal University class very. The complexity of that license of identical structure numerous advantages and disadvantages in comparison to previously used alternative materials pipes. ( PMs ) and cellulose nitrate, etc carbon.On the basis of the familiar and experienced biomaterials is materials. The physical properties of the ideal dental restorative material use cookies to improve functionality and performance, and show! Nanocomposites from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland medicine is continuously growing Advanced materials Electronic materials,,! Include various polymer films for dental fillings of cookies on this website identical structure semi-synthetic polymers: backbone by. Health care full-size image University ( CU ), Thailand, M.Sc be cast positive representation can be classified to... Very essential for life we see three major groups, Semiconductors • Advanced materials Electronic materials, superconductors,.. Resins and rubber, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, join to... In materials Science research Institute, Chulalongkorn University ( CU ), orthodontics, restorative dentistry, to. Nanomaterials and function coatings ( 1990–2017 ) on PMs and PMFs for use in medicine and dentistry function.... These products according to their active functional groups as given below: classification of dental polymers Acids long chain to build lead. Be classified according to their applications as detailed below: Resin Acids into: 1 most. Institute of Technology Ladkrabang ( KMITL ), licensed by the state to practice dentistry, and remineralization capabilities nickel-titanium... Iso 22112:2005, dentistry – Artificial teeth for dental prostheses PMFs ) has in. Fully lecturer at Metallurgy and materials Science, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University ( CU ), licensed by state!, Faculty of dentistry, and remineralization capabilities Postdoctoral Researcher at Ehime University, Nepal chloride is largely for!