A meta-analysis of 143 gender studies suggests that higher ethical decision-making scores associated to women can be attributed to their higher social desirability response biases. Nonetheless, each approach gives us important information with which to determine what is ethical in a particular circumstance. How do those standards get applied to specific situations we face? Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. How some differing approaches might work in an example. The reason this is so hard to answer is that ethical implies making a moral choice. Simply stated, ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals, and so on. Think creatively about potential actions 9. If you know right from wrong, it shouldn't be that hard. This approach to ethics assumes a society comprising individuals whose own good is inextricably linked to the good of the community. As a result, each approach often needs certain questions answered that are irrelevant to another approach. There are different ethical approaches which may help you make the most ethical decision. … So, when I think about what to do this weekend, I do not focus on happiness (like utilitarianism), nor do I focus on building a virtuous character for myself, nor on respecting my aunt’s needs. Vari Hall, Santa Clara University500 El Camino RealSanta Clara, CA 95053408-554-5319, Miller Center for Social Entrepreneurship, The Ethics of Going Back to School in a Pandemic, Systemic Racism, Police Brutality, and the Killing of George Floyd, COVID-19: Ethics, Health and Moving Forward, The Ethical Implications of Mass Shootings, Political Speech in the Age of Social Media, Point/Counterpoint: Democratic Legitimacy, Brett Kavanaugh and the Ethics of the Supreme Court Confirmation Process, PDF - Framework for Ethical Decision Making. And when our company is Multi-National, it is vital to understand any aspects of differing approaches used in the various host-countries in which we operate. In virtue ethics, the balancing act is often more difficult because there are many virtuous character traits we should try and embody, and each may have different targets. If you … What sort of person would put his own fun-time aside in order to visit his ailing aunt in the hospital? Now let’s take a look at some more advanced tools that you can use if you have some time to ponder your options before making a decision. 1. This may be a system of laws, effective police and fire departments, health care, a public educational system, or even public recreational areas. He has attended Elon University, Unversity of Arkansas and University of California-Santa Barbra. They enable us to pursue the ideals we have adopted. Virtues are attitudes or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop our highest potential. In addition to all these models, the decision making processes as discussed above, can also be made use of for encouraging managers to take ethical decisions. • The principle states: “An action or policy is morally right only if those persons affected by the decision are not used merely as instruments for advancing some goal, but are fully informed and treated only as they have freely and knowingly consented to be treated.”. While individual interest is considered, the common good holds more moral weight. Because of the travel time involved, you cannot both attend the concert and travel home to visit your sick aunt in the hospital. The Common Good Approach Here, my focus is on community whose members are joined in a shared pursuit of values, and I often get to define the relevant community. These ideals provide for the full development of our humanity, and are discovered through thoughtful reflection on what kind of people we have the potential to become. Approaches to Ethical Decision-Making B ECOMING A MEMBER OF THE Academy of Nutrition and Di-etetics, as well as meeting the requirements for and main-taining certification from the Commis- sion on Dietetic Registration (CDR), represents implicit acceptance of the tenets that guide the profession. 1. Stop and think: This provides several benefits. It prevents rash decisions, prepares us for more … The Virtue Approach A very ancient approach to ethics is that ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of our humanity. A very ancient approach to ethics is that ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of our humanity. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do. The Rights Approach Other philosophers and ethicists suggest that the ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. Each of the approaches helps us determine what standards of behavior can be considered ethical. in the same way. Talk “ethics” – make it a part of your workplace culture. Utilitarian Approach The Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision making states that you should choose the action or policy that has the best overall consequence for all people who are directly or indirectly affected. Rights Based Approach – which action respects the rights of everyone involved? It was last revised in May 2009. 5: The relation - ship between gender and ethical decision making remains a contentious issue (see “Up for Debate”). This approach is based in equality. We have found the following framework for ethical decision making a useful method for exploring ethical dilemmas and identifying ethical courses of action. Examples of goods common to all include affordable health care, effective public safety, peace among nations, a just legal system, and an unpolluted environment. In the end, we must strive to achieve the greatest harmony of virtues. Another attempt at making an ethical decision is to consider the decision from both points of view by mentally placing yourself (with your belief system) into each opposing position and then consider the decision from each position. Though you might be tempted to focus on the nuts-and-bolts aspects for running a business and making a profit, you can't avoid ethical concerns that are common to all businesses. The virtuous person is the ethical person. ( Log Out /  Courses he has taught range from logic to bio-medical ethics. Using one or more of these principles and ethical approaches intentionally can also help you examine choices and options before making a decision or solving an ethical dilemma. • Identifies certain interests or activities that our behavior must respect, especially those areas of our lives that are of such value to us that they merit protection from others. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done. • Each person has a fundamental right to be respected and treated as a free and equal rational person capable of making his or her own decisions. This approach suggests that the interlocking relationships of society are the basis of ethical reasoning and that respect and compassion for all others -- especially the vulnerable -- are requirements of such reasoning. Justice requires that we be fair in the way we distribute benefits and burdens. Etc. For example, if I do visit my sick aunt, I must not choose to do so in order to ensure that I obtain her inheritance. This was first developed by Immanuel Kant. If you have any doubt about saying Yes to any of the questions then you should think about things more carefully. (The Rights Approach), Which option treats people equally or proportionately? Virtue ethics asks of any action, "What kind of person will I become if I do this?" The framework addresses two general types of ethical decisions that lie across a continuum: clinical and organizational. We may not even agree on what is a good and what is a harm. This argument also states that all other rights stem from a human’s basic right of choice (Meeler offers rights to privacy and not to be injured as examples). Have I identified creative options? Different approaches sometimes recommend different courses of action; other times they recommend the same (or similar) courses of action, but for very different reasons. • Fairness requires consistency in the way people are treated. The Common Good Approach . Do I know enough to make a decision? In fact, my happiness goes up so much that it virtually guarantees that I should forgo the concert and visit my sick aunt in the hospital. Even when two approaches would come to the same result, you should not ignore features that are relevant to the other approach, if for no other reason to not insult your friends, colleagues, family members, hosts, etc. Why? • Keep in mind, different communities may identify differing virtues. Prepare yourself by considering your decision making process. This approach to ethics assumes a society comprising individuals whose own good is inextricably linked to the good of the community. take a more structured approach to decision-making to ensure that only the established ethical principles of healthcare, not your own personal values or beliefs, guide your decision-making. Establish a framework for evaluating the dimensions of ethical actions from inviolate absolutes to “teaching opportunities.” • Keep in mind, that different people often identify benefits and harms differently. or "Is this action consistent with my acting at my best?". within my community? I favor virtue ethics because it provides a basis for evaluating the decision as ethical, which traditional philosophical reasoning methods do as well, and also it can be used to evaluate the ethics of the person making the decision. Utilitarian Approach – which action results in the most good and least harm? Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices. • Examples might be: honesty, courage, faithfulness, trustworthiness, integrity, etc. Having a method for ethical decision making is absolutely essential. The common good is a notion that originated more than 2,000 years ago in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Are we treating each party the same unless there is some relevant moral reason to treat one differently? Utilitarian The utilitarian approach to ethical decision making focuses on taking the action that will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Following an ethical decision-making process enables you to: Helpful Resource! After you take action, review the path you chose. ( Log Out /  Because of this ability humans have a “fundamental moral right” for others to accept and not interfere with these choices. Is any one of the available options more fair and just? What are the relevant facts of the case? 1. In none of these situations is a utilitarian being selfish. While respecting and valuing the freedom of individuals to pursue their own goals, the common-good approach challenges us also to recognize and further those goals we share in common. People have moral rights, especially the fundamental right to be treated as free and equal human beings, not as things to be manipulated, controlled, or cast away. Ethical Decision Making Ethical decision making is the process in which you aim to make your decisions in line with a code of ethics. May 19 2016 at midnight. that must be protected if a person is to have the freedom to direct his or her own life. Myself? When I choose to visit my sick I aunt, I should be motivated out of respect for her as a sick, elderly lady with no children of her own; I should try to understand her loneliness and vulnerability, and I should visit her because of my respect for her and my willingness to see her treated well. It is recommended that you review the Practice ... We recommend following these steps to ensure you make the best decisions when it comes to children and families in your practice: 1 Identify and focus on the facts of your situation • Avoid making assumptions about the motivations of others. 'For tougher decisions, advisors may find three rules of management helpful (Hojnacki, 2004). Let’s look at two tools that can be used when you have to make snap decisions. If I am thinking about traditional virtues such as honesty, courage, faithfulness, integrity, etc., then I will ask myself which course of action best embodies these virtues. Ethical Decision Making Model. – What trends have increased the risk of using information technology in an unethical manner?Ethics in Information Technology, Fourth Edition 3 4. We’ll explore both of these steps in this chapter. ethical. Maybe there is an entirely different and better solution - … 5. These virtues are dispositions and habits that enable us to act according to the highest potential of our character and on behalf of values like truth and beauty. Consider your primary community; however it is reasonable to define it. The ethical action is the one that provides the greatest good for the greatest number. When our feelings … What approach can you take to ensure ethical decision making What trends have from CS PPIT at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad ( Log Out /  Ethical dilemmas impact boardroom decision-making on a daily basis. What facts are not known? Favoritism gives benefits to some people without a justifiable reason for singling them out; discrimination imposes burdens on people who are no different from those on whom burdens are not imposed. Community members are bound by the pursuit of common values and goals. Checking references, calling on past employers, and verifying that the information on an application is accurate, will protect you from hiring an unethical and irresponsible employee. Make a Decision and Test It ... • How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the ... STEPS TO ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING Law can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have made it. To do so, you must seek out resources such as professional guidelines and organizational policies, and rule out any unethical solutions to your problem. Or can we at least try to do more good than harm with our choice? The next approach is the Virtue Approach. Virtue Ethics Approach• Virtue ethics approach – Focuses on concern with daily life in a community – People guided by virtues to reach “right” decision – More effective than following set of principles/rules• Problems – Does not provide guide for action – Virtue cannot be worked out objectively; depends on circumstancesEthics in Information Technology, Fourth Edition 38 Law may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems. Identify. Here, we outline five ways to create a more ethical company culture. 5. Make a Decision and Test It • Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation? When you're making a major decision for your company, it can be tempting to choose the easiest or most cost-effective course of action -- even if that option isn't the best from an ethical standpoint. You decide to forgo the concert and instead you travel home to visit your ailing aunt in her sickbed. Actions are wrong to the extent that they violate the rights of individuals; the more serious the violation, the more wrongful the action. What sort of person would visit his elderly aunt just to get her inheritance? (The Utilitarian Approach), Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake? Gather the facts 3. Instead, you need to understand what matters to you. We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical government, or an ethical society should be. The fairness or justice approach to ethics has its roots in the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who said that “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.” The basic moral question in this approach is: How fair is an action? Common Good Approach – which action contributes most to the quality of life of the people affected? Here we take a look at a six-step model for ethical decision-making that can prepare business leaders and other professionals to face a range of organizational challenges and personal choices. An ethical decision-making approach can: clarify thinking about the issue/dilemma ; assist in the analysis of the issues involved, the dissection of the presenting problems and clearer identification of the dilemma ; provide an individual or organisation with a rational way in which to defend a particular course of action (Fry and Johnstone, 2008). 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