Try to plant at the correct time—when soil temperatures are above 55°F in the Corn Belt or by the calendar if you farm in the South. They also represent conventional, strip-till, and no-till systems. Soybean should be planted at 1 to 1.5 inches deep, but no deeper than 2 inches. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. If there is little or no moisture in the soil’s surface, planting shallow (1 to 1.5 inches deep) and waiting for rain is recommended. On April 22, Bohner planted soybeans into excellent soil … Soybeans, however, can emerge reasonably well from a 2.5 inch depth, if soil crusting is not prevalent during actual emergence from the soil. Adequate soil moisture is the most important factor affecting soybean germination. Space seeds about 2 to 4 inches apart in the rows. This research was conducted at different locations over the years including Clay Center, Lincoln, Cedar Bluffs, and Mead. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. The two plants on the left were planted at least 1 inch deeper than the emerged plants on the right and the seed was placed about 3 inches deep. Like corn, soybeans are actually very sensitive to planting depth. Table 2. Plant populations also were evaluated with each planting depth; these included seeding rates of 35,000; 70,000; 105,000; 140,000; 175,000; and 210,000 seeds/acre. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. (See Figure 1). Now producers are asking: "If I plant my soybeans early, how deep should I plant them?". Furthermore, these relatively shallow planting depths allow for faster emergence when temperatures are rapidly declining. Under most conditions, soybeans should be planted between 1 and 1.5 inches deep. Planting Soybeans For Deer- When Is The Best Time To Plant Soybeans For Deer? After preparing your soil for the best conditions for the growth of your plant, you can now plant your soybean seeds. I visited a field where a planter had failed to place the seed at the correct depth. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. In reality, with the planting conditions (stalks, trash, rootballs) and a little faster planting speed than in corn, most beans end up 1 1/2" deep instead of the 2" in corn. Common Pests and Diseases. It’s higher in protein (approximately 25-30 percent), offers a good number of carbohydrates and is more palatable than most food sources available to deer. With soybean planting just around the corner, now is a good time to consider planting depth. Soybeans grow best where the daytime temperature averages between 60°F and 70°F (16-21°C). Plant shallow when planting early, deeper when planting later; shallow under moist conditions, deeper under dry conditions; shallow on heavy soils, slightly deeper on light, well-drained soils. This procedure is discussed in more detail in the Michigan State University Extension article, “Reconfiguring planting units on no-till drills to improve soybean planting performance.”. One of the study's hypotheses was that planting deeper would buffer soil temperature and moisture and protect newly emerged seedlings from frost and freeze damage, particularly when planting early in the season. Soybeans tissue analysis – recently matured leaf adequate element level. Reconfiguring planting units on no-till drills to improve soybean planting performance. Soybean seed can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils. Thin to 6" in all directions. Put beans in the ground 2-3 weeks after the last frost date, when soil temperatures are about 60°F. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Do not overwater newly planted beans, otherwise they may crack. Soybeans are not frost-tolerant. Across all site-years, regardless of early or late planting dates or tillage type, a planting depth of 1.75 inches maximized soybean yields. If planted too deeply, the seeds may take longer to germinate and emerge. This is true when large seed is planted in coarse-textured soils. The variety had an excellent emergence rating and many of the plants were able to finally emerge, but with lower energy reserves and vigor than the plants that were planted at the correct depth. Under most conditions, soybeans should be planted between 1 and 1.5 inches deep. If planting 2 inches deep to access uniform moisture, make sure the variety has an excellent emergence score. This article was produced by the SMaRT project (Soybean Management and Research Technology). Planting depth. This practice will be less beneficial if sclerotia from previous infestations are present in the soil and it increases the long-term survival … When it comes to seeding depth, early results from Bohner’s Bornholm, Ont., research location are already supporting his belief that one and a half inches is the best planting depth for soybean. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Across all site-years, regardless of early or late planting dates or tillage type, a planting depth of 1.75 inches maximized soybean yields. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. Soybean seed is very sensitive to planting depth, so producers need to be careful and get their crop off to a good start. As of Monday 6% of Nebraska soybeans had been planted, according to the USDA National Ag Statistics Service. The best soybean yields occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of 6.5 or above. Planters typically provide better depth control than drills or air seeders. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Strengthening Nebraska's Agricultural Economy, Soybean Planting Depth: Consider Planting Deeper. Sow soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5cm) deep, 2 to 4 inches (5-1ocm) apart in rows 24 to 30 inches )61-76cm) apart. This information is for educational purposes only. “For soybeans, I would advise tilling as little as possible,” says Wiebold. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, or in dry conditions. Later planting dates in 2011 were due to cold-wet planting conditions in conventional-till fields and the inability to get into those fields earlier. Sow the soybeans 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) deep into the soil, and space the beans about 3 inches (7.6 cm) apart. Select the most resistant/tolerant varieties available. The rule of thumb has been to plant deeper when soil is drier or lighter (sandy) and shallower when soil is colder, wetter and heavier (clays). The SMaRT project was developed to help Michigan producers increase soybean yields and farm profitability. There is no benefit in fertilizing the crop incorrectly. While that may be the case, shallow planting also may reduce stands. Since we wouldn’t want our seeds to be buried too deep in the soil, we must first pulverize the soil and make it firmer by using a cultipacker. Sampling the first fully develop leaf at first flowering in highly recommended. As a general rule, plant at the shallower end of the range under the following conditions: Planting at the deeper end of the range is recommended under the following conditions: Soybean seed can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils. However, depth control on drills and air seeders equipped with gauge wheels mounted on single disk openers can be greatly improved. These site-years represent a wide range of early season growing conditions, from wet-cold to dry-warm; hence, results are applicable over a wide range of conditions. Large seed contains more stored energy and should be able to emerge from greater depths than small seed. All soybean plots were planted into 30-inch rows with planting dates of May 30 and June 4, 2011; May 1, 2012; and April 29, 2013. However, the larger cotyledons on large seed are more difficult to pull through a soil crust, so plant large seed shallower when planting into soils prone to crusting. Adequate soil moisture is the most important factor affecting soybean germination. Plant seeds at a depth of 1-2 inches. Planting soybean seed at the proper depth will produce more uniform stands and higher yields. Plant soybeans in late winter in warm-winter regions. Remember, never plant deeper than 2-1/2 inches. Seed planted too shallowly may also be late in germinating, probably due to inadequate moisture. Planting depth should be about 1.25 1 to 1.5 inches, depending on soil moisture conditions, and should not exceed 2 inches. Check out the MSU Viticulture Certificate Program! Many producers plant soybeans shallow (as long as moisture is present) thinking that this will result in quick emergence. Nebraska research has demonstrated the value of planting soybeans early. Jim Specht, UNL Professor of Agronomy and Horticulture Jenny Rees, UNL Extension Educator Keith Glewen, UNL Extension Educator Patricio Grassini, UNL Extension Cropping Systems Agronomist, 105 Ag. Plant the seeds closer to 2 inches deep if the soil has a large sand content or is slightly dry. ISU Extension and Outreach recommendations for soybean planting depth can be found in the Soybean Growth and Development publication (PM 1945). Shallow depths of less than 1.25 inches with  seeding rates of 35K-105K resulted in lower yields, as did deeper planting depths of 2.25 inches or greater at these seeding rates. Specht himself was surprised by the results. "About 42% of growers are planting deeper than an inch and a half." If planting early or into moist soils, planting depth can be set to 1 inch. This can provide an excellent situation to plant winter wheat or even barley without any late planting impacts. Period. Water the beans once they’ve been planted, but only until the soil is moist. The optimum depth for planting soybeans is 1 inch to 1.5 inches deep. The soybean plant is the king of deer feed. The seed must imbibe (take-in) 50 percent of its weight in moisture in order for the germination process to begin and remain above 20 percent after the seed swells and the seed coat splits. by Kevin Steffey This is an important question with more than one answer; you could waste a lot of time and money planting at the wrong time, and depending on what you are trying to achieve, and where you are geographically, the answer could vary greatly. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. While we can't show all the data here, the results in fact showed the optimal planting depth was around 1.75 inches. Besides that soybeans are a warm season annual legume (A crop that is edible in seed, pod or other part of the plant is edible). Practice no-till. The seed must imbibe (take-in) 50 percent of its weight in moisture in order for the germination process to begin and remain above 20 percent after the seed swells and the seed coat splits. Producers and agronomists have long used 1.5 inch as the average planting depth for soybeans. Soybeans are potent in protein carrying 25% to 30% in the plant itself when the plant is in soil that has good fertility. "We know that it's a little risky to plant soybeans deep -- let's say deeper than 2 inches -- because heavy rain might seal them in before they can emerge," he continued. As a general rule, plant at the shallower end of the range under the following conditions: Early planting; High residue conditions; Fine-textured soils; Moist soils; Planting at the deeper end of the range is recommended under the following conditions: Late planting Sampling leaves for plant tissues analysis is vital for precise Fertilizer Software. The units mounted to the center frame of the planter placed the seed at 1.5 inches deep and into moisture while the units mounted to the outer wings planted the seed 1 inch deep and into dry or marginal moisture conditions. Plant the seeds ½ inch deep 2-3 inches apart once the danger of frost has passed. Soybean plants emerge best when seeds are planted 1 to 1-1/2 inches deep. Planting Depth Soybeans prefer to be planted within the narrow range of one to one-and-a-half inches. With planting date responses for the two crops essentially identical on a percentage basis, w… For soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- If you must plant deeper than 1.5 inches in order to place the seed into uniform moisture, make sure the variety has an excellent emergence score or long hypocotyl. Research we conducted at UNL looked at several factors including soybean populations and planting depths over a three-year period (2011-2013). “I used to recommend planting at 1 to 1.25 inches when planting early and 1.25 to 1.5 inches when planting late. Soybean farmers need to be careful about how deep they plant their seeds this growing season because, if not, they may see delayed emergence or even decreased Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. April 27, 2016. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. Mike Staton, Michigan State University Extension - The researchers and authors would like to thank the Nebraska Soybean Board for their support of this research project. For a long time the recommendation was to plant corn 1.75 inches deep, but growers have increasingly been putting seed down at 2 or 2.25 inches while planting earlier. 4- Seed about a million seeds per acre. In this case, most of the seed was planted too deep (see photo). Check out the MSU Agricultural Industries Certificate Program! A cheap and effective option is to reconfigure the planting units on drills or air seeders set up on 7.5-inch rows so that none of the gauge wheels run over the old corn row. Bury the sclerotia deeper than 2 inches with tillage operations. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Furthermore, deer don’t have to work hard to eat it. Taking time to check planting depth is important regardless of the planting equipment used. Like other types of beans, soybeans don’t do well when transplanted because of their shallow roots. Planting and spacing. Adjust your soybean planting equipment as soil and crop residue conditions change and dig up seed frequently to verify that it is placed at the intended depth and into at least 0.5 inch of moist soil. Communications Bldg.Lincoln, NE 68583-0918. Deer can also put significant pressure on soybean plants. This is why agronomists recommend planting soybeans into at least 0.5 inch of moist soil. Plant the soybean seeds two inches apart, in holes that are approximately 1-1/2 inches deep. The shallower seed emerged two weeks later than the deeper seed and yielded 1.6 bushels per acre less. “Even a disk … Planting depths of 1 inch and 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5 inches were evaluated in 2011 and an additional planting depth of 2.75 inches was added in 2012 and 2013. SMaRT is a partnership between MSU Extension and the Michigan Soybean Checkoff program. fairviewfarmer Posted 3/7/2011 18:13 (#1656397 - in reply to #1654577) Subject: Re: How deep to plant soybeans? Soybeans can usually emerge from 2.5 – 3 inches deep, but this is an additional stress; plant them no deeper than what it takes to get them reliably into good moisture. Planting depth surveys revealed that only 20 percent of the fields planted with drills were planted at or near the intended depth. Observations by the On-Farm Network team indicate that many soybean fields were planted at the wrong depth last year. On planters, our Valion seed tube guards keep the opener blades at the correct distance from one another so that the blades form a furrow of consistent width. We have to remember today’s corn seed lots have better cold tolerance and can be planted deeper and still have the strength and vigor to emerge. Many of today’s soybeans are Round-Up Ready, meaning that you can spray these soybeans with a glyphosate herbicide and it will not harm the soybean plants but will kill the weeds (Round-Up is a trade name for glyphosate). Now that we’ve passed the first week of April, plantings of this year’s corn or soybean crops from now on can’t be considered “very early”, but the message from some agronomists about the need to plant soybeans as early as March continues, and more producers are choosing to begin planting soybeans before they begin planting corn. We looked at numerous factors but because this research has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, we can only share specific information regarding the planting depth studies. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). The data also showed that this planting depth was consistent for all site-years of the study. An even bigger concern is that in 68 percent of the fields, the seed was planted too deep, a condition known to delay emergence. Plant soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches deep in rows 24 to 30 inches apart. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Last spring, I visited a sandy field of drilled soybeans that were emerging slowly and unevenly. Planting depth. This may require planting deeper than 1.5 inches under dry soil conditions. Generally, early soybeans do best planted early, and later soybeans planted later. An early 2.5 soybean planted early in Centre County will usually be ready to harvest in late September. Also, consider seed size when deciding how deep to plant. Plant soybeans 1" to 1½" deep. Soybeans can suffer from powdery mildew, leaf blight, root rot, and other bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Plant the beans in rows that are about 30 inches (76 cm) apart. "Only 46% of Indiana soybean growers plant in the recommended seeding depth, which is three-fourths of an inch to an inch and a half deep," says Shawn Conley, Purdue Extension soybean specialist. Your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI ( 888-678-3464.. 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