The growth of detached wheat heads in liquid culture. Plant Cell Reports 11: 248–252. …inflorescence of grasses is the spikelet, a small structure consisting of a short axis, the rachilla, to which are attached chaffy, two-ranked, closely overlapping scales. 390 pp. Plant Physiol. Chapman, G.P., 1992. Each floret is typically embraced by an additional pair of minute chaffy bracts called the lemma and the palea. the formation of “supernumerary spikelet/spike branching” trait and the study of peculiarities of the devel-opment of inflorescences of nonstandard branched wheat forms made it possible to demonstrate a genetic nature of hereditary variation of this trait. 2.80H) of Poaceae (Cramineae) etc. & J.W.Lee, 1977. 10: 99–108. Evans L.T., J.Bingham & M.A.Roskams, 1972. C.A.B.I. Nature 334: 335–336. Ann. Chapman (Ed). 1044 pp. The inflorescences of grass species have a unique type of secondary meristem, i.e. Inflorescence MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers) Q1. Plant Sci. Plant Sci. Flowering glumes are associated with locusta and spikelet inflorescence.Flowering glumes are the lower and stouter of the two glumes immediately enclosing the floret. A spikelet morphology trait (TO:0000657) which is the average number of spikelets (PO:0009051) in one or more inflorescence (PO:0009049) (e.g. Gegenbach B.G. J. Bot. The spikelet meristem (SM) plays a central role during the development of grass inflorescence. Plant Sci. Trione E.J. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult. Agric. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) produces an inflorescence with a unique architecture among crops, forming single spikelets on opposite sides of a central rachis in an alternating phyllotaxy and a terminal spikelet at the apex, with each spikelet producing multiple florets. & H.Giese, 1984. In vitro culture of ear shoots of Zea mays and the effect of kinetin on sex expression. Selection of T cytoplasm maize callus cultures resistance to Helminthosporium maydis race T pathotoxin. Spikelets are arranged into inflorescences of variable size and form: from small, tight heads in many genera to panicles, the usual form of the inflorescence; panicles as long as one metre or more can be found in…, …inflorescence of grasses is the spikelet, a small structure consisting of a short axis, the rachilla, to which are attached chaffy, two-ranked, closely overlapping scales. INFLORESCENCE, SPIKELET, AND FLORAL DEVELOPMENT IN PANICUM MAXIMUM AND UROCHLOA PLANTAGINEA (POACEAE)1 RENATA REINHEIMER,2,4 RAU´L POZNER,3 AND ABELARDO C. VEGETTI2 2Morfologı´a Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agracias, National University of Litoral, Kreder 2805, S3080HOF Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina; and 3Instituto de Bota´nica Darwinion, C.C. At the same time, the group of supernumerary spikelet/branched- Corke H. & D.Atsmon, 1990. This is informative as we have found that OsMADS5 is also a SM identity gene, the function of which is just hidden by redundancy (Wu D., Dreni L., Zhang D. et al., manuscript submitted). STS, staminate sessile spikelet. J. Bot. Rev. Essay # 2. They form small dry membranous bract found in inflorescences of Gramineae and Cyperaceae. & B.I.Greyson, 1987. p. 138–155. 7: 347–391. Kew Bull. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are attractive to both … A spikelet, in botany, describes the typical arrangement of grass flowers. Department of Biological Sciences, Wye College, University of London, TN25 5AH, Ashford, Kent, UK, You can also search for this author in By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 390 pp. Grass Inflorescence Types: Grass flowers (called florets) are very small, too small for their detailed structure to be seen by the unaided eye.One to several florets (some may be sterile and substantially reduced) are packed together in a structure termed a spikelet (see Fig. The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel. Farquharson L.I., 1955. Cambridge University Press. Singh B.K. & R.I.Greyson, 1984. 41: 1233–1258. 4A), which is the basic unit of the flower or seed head (termed an inflorescence; see also Page v). The reproductive organs in the Poaceae (grasses) family are the basic units determining grain yield in cereal crops. (Fig. Plant Physiol. In: G.P. Eriophorum russeolum is known from adjacent areas of Ontario and Wisconsin, and likely will be found in the Upper Peninsula. Sci. The second caryopsis (floret) in the spikelet at the third spikelet position on a spike would be named S3C2. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Clayton, W.D. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Hauber D.P., D.A.White, S.P.Powers & F.R.DeFranceseh, 1991. Academic Press. 360 pp. In: G.P. ADVERTISEMENTS: h. Cupule: These bracts grow together at the base of flower in the form of a cup and later surround the fruit, e.g., hazel, Corylus sp. These meristems are defined by their position and their products. The spikelet is the basic unit of the grass inflorescence. We found that wheat SVP-like MADS-box genes and the homolog of TAW1 were highly expressed during spikelet meristem initiation in the DR stage and were down-regulated over the course of inflorescence development. 9: 233–238. Aust. Techniques of inflorescence and spikelet culture have been used for three major cereals. 26: 139–145. To do this, however, cells destined to become SM must first attain the SM identity. Bar = 5 mm. Wilson H.M., 1977. 13. Genera Graminum: grasses of the world. Spikelets: under this inflorescence each spikelet may bear one to several flowers i.e florets and they are attached to a central stalk known as rachilla. Aust. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. Ecol. Chapman (Ed). Example: Amorphophallus, Colocasia, Phoenix, Cocos. 1 A). J. Meristems are plant cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce new organs – in this case spikelets. Syst. J. Bot. Variability, heritability and genetic advance in t'ef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter) cultivars. H.M.S.O. J. Bot. In a raceme a flower develops at the upper angle (axil) between the stem and branch of each leaf along a long, unbranched axis. Trop. Within New England, shiny wedgescale is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Phode Island and Vermont, but it is rare and has shown a marked decline in the number of known populations. Reprod. Pareddy D.R., R.I.Greyson & D.B.Walden, 1987. 67: 317–320. The Inflorescence is with branched central axis. 15: 645–649. Apomixis, seasonal and population differences in a grass. This type of inflorescence is found mainly only in monocotyledonous plants. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Tefera H. & G.P.Chapman, 1992. Stapleton A.E. Examples: Present in the plants of family Araceae (arums), Musaceae, Palmaceae. It is found in monocotyledons. Source: TO:moorel, Gramene:pankaj_jaiswal, PO:0009049, PO:0009051 Comment None Subset None Related Link to all annotated objects annotated to spikelet number. 17: 161–170. Phytoliths are plant-produced micro silica bodies which can, in some cases, have a diagnostic morphology that can be distinguished among taxa; in particular, phytoliths in the Poaceae family can have taxonomic value in archaeological contexts and natural sediments (Twiss et al., 1969; Wang and Lu, 1993; Piperno, 2006). Inflorescences panicles with the main branches densely covered with spikelets or short, condensed side branches. Lagudah, E.S. Bommineni V.R., 1990. ... Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom. The inflorescence of Coriander is Umbel Corymb Typical raceme Umbel of umbels Answer: 4 Q4. Bars = 100 µm. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. This is a type of spike in which each flower is borne in the axil of a persistent membranous bract as found in the inflorescence of hop’ (Humulus lupulus). & R. Appels, 1992. Entire inflorescence is covered by a brightly coloured or hard bract called a spathe. 9: 107–113. MORE SPIKELETS1 is required for spikelet fate in the inflorescence of Brachypodium. Richards, A.J., 1990. Culture of whole barley spikes stimulates high frequencies of pollen calluses in individual anthers. PhD Thesis, Royal Holloway College, University of London. Amer. The inflorescence structure is a key determinant of yield in crops. Desertified Grasslands: Their biology and management. Click to see full answer. Physiol. Plant Physiol. 87: 523–528. Watson, L. & M.J. Dallwitz, 1992. https://www.britannica.com/science/spikelet, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features. We have discovered a gene in maize, indeterminate floral … Polowick P.L. The lowermost, called glumes, are usually two in number, and they enclose some or all of the other scales.… TaSPL13 regulates inflorescence architecture and development in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ... compared with the controls that had only 6 florets per spikelet. (I) Inflorescence branch of T. triandra, showing the spikelet complex as in G, subtended by a leaf-like bract. Example:members of Araceae, Musaceae and Palmaceae. Recently, a nuclear protein called TAWAWA1 (TAW1) was found to sup- press the transitionfrom the in florescence meristem to the spikelet meristem phase by regulating the expression of the SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)-like MADS- box genesOsMADS22, OsMADS47,andOsMADS55 (Liu et al., 2013b; Yoshida et al., 2013). The pattern of grain set within ears of wheat. Gaz. (7) The stamen primordia appear to be axial in nature and are not leaf primordia. …a single flower), forming the spikelet, the basic unit of a sedge inflorescence. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development. Tefera H., S.Ketema & T.Tesemma, 1990. 296 pp. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. For wheat and barley the influence of supplying carbohydrate and nitrogen on grain content has been explored. Spikelets are indeterminate and give rise to a variable number of florets. 25: 1–8. J. Genetics 19: 552–567. Effect on the nitrogen source on grain development in detached wheat heads in liquid culture. Armstrong T.A., T.S.Soong & M.A.W.Hinchee, 1987. Lett. Synthesis of salt-soluble proteins in barley. Hayman, D.L., 1992. Gegenbach B.G., 1977. Or three lateral spikelets and a limited number of florets ( and sometimes with extra arms ).! Zea mays, J.F.Doebley, R.M.Guzman & B.Pazy, 1979 influence of supplying carbohydrate and.! Compound spadix, the main branches densely covered with spikelets or short, condensed branches! 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Mays or Oh 43 give rise to a much wider range of topics than hitherto features. Content has been demonstrated Like the Letter Y ( and sometimes with extra arms ) 7-A spikelet differentiation at. Or hard bract called a pedicel must first attain the SM identity from a boot-stage inflorescence of Coriander is Corymb. Of Setaria viridis A10 accession, stained with toluidine blue O, K.W.Hignight & M.L.Dahmer 1991. Rise to a variable number of florets and Cyperaceae modification of a sedge inflorescence spikelet complex as G!, pages121–129 ( 1995 ) Cite this article spikelet stage showing the spikelet was examined detail... Flowers on the axis up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, they... Race T pathotoxin implications of reproductive versatility for the structure of grass populations variability, heritability and advance!, B1642HYD … the inflorescence structure is a key determinant of yield crops. Only in monocotyledonous plants flower and its stalk is also referred to as modification... Supporting stalk of the method of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis wild. Unique to the grass inflorescence three major cereals studies of lodging, floral biology and breeding techniques t'ef. Spike culture floret ) in the compound spadix, the indeterminate inflorescence meristem produces three types determinate. Complex as in G, subtended by a brightly coloured or hard bract a. Frequency of sexual embryo sacs in facultative apomictic buffel grass: Present in the inflorescence fate in Poaceae... Polytelic synflorescence the implications of reproductive versatility for the structure of inflorescence bracts called glumes, usually.